All of us know what smallpox is. Technically, it is caused by the variola virus and CDC stated that most common form of smallpox cause about 30% mortality rate. The disease predominantly spread throuh direct contact with an infected individual’s bodily fluids or skin. It is notable that the virus can be airborne in closed, confined environments. The World Health Organization eradicated smallpox through mass vaccinations in 1967, and as a result, the last known natural case of smallpox was in 1977. However, several sources confirmed that laboratory copies of smallpox still exists ad in fact played a role in several countries’ bioweapons programs. Only Russia and U.S have WHO-approved stores, but it is still unknown how many secret stockpiles are in the wild. The CDC classifies smallpox as a Category A biological weapon since it can be airborne and mortality rate is high. If the virus is released by some nutcases to general public, the general population is in fact very much at risk. This kind of virus doesn’t have to use flashy methods to unleash either, as using an aerosol form or dumping an infected person to a high-population area would be more than sufficient.
If you haven’t been living in cages in the past decade, you definitely know about this one. Another Category A biological weapon, Anthrax first came into public knowledge when letters containing an unknown white powder were sent to U.S Senate offices and media outlets in the fall of 2001. Those white powder is in fact the spores of the deadly bacteria named Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax letter attack killed 5 among the infected 22. Most cases of anthrax transmission are through skin contact with the spores, but inhalation anthrax is the most deadly form. When you inhale the spores, those little buggers will travel to your lungs and then the immune cells will carry them to the lymph nodes.There, the spores will multiply and release toxins which result in many terrifying symptoms. Inhalation anthrax results in 100% mortality rate, and even under serious medical care, the mortality rate can be reduced only to 75%. One relieving part is that the disease can’t be transmitted from person to person. However, the scariest part is that anthrax virus have very long life. They can sit on the shelf for 50 years or more and still pose a lethal threat. To date, anthrax is one of the most feared and well-known biological weapons.
Named “The Black Death”, plague decimated half the population of Europe back in the 14th century. Even though it was seven centuries ago, the horror of Black Death has continued to resonate through the world until now. The term “plague” actually refers to the Yersinia pestis bacterium, which is a Category A biological weapon. There are two types of main strains, pneumonic and bubonic. Bubonic plague spreads by bites from infected fleas, as well as from person to person through infected bodily fluids. The scariest part is that if infected individuals are not treated within first 24 hours of infection, 70% of those will die. Pneumonic plague is airborne by coughs, sneezes and face-to-face contact, but less common, thank god! Plague victims themselves, either dead or alive, are effective delivery vehicles. The history has proven it time and time again. In 1940, Japan dropped sacks of infected fleas out of airplanes in China, causing a massive epidemic. Today, epidemiologists predict that weaponized plague would be in the form of an aerosol, which will result in pneumonic plague outbreak. Vermin-based, low-tech attacks are still possible options too. The copy of this virus is very easy to come by, since plague still occurs naturally throughout the world. There is no vaccine, but mortality rate can be as low as 5% if proper treatment is received. Currently, several countries including Canada, Germany, Japan, Egypt, Russia, North Korea and the United States are known or suspected to have pursued plague as a biological weapon.
Mortality rate of tularemia is, like plague, 5% overall. However, the micro-organism behind tularemia is one of the most infectious bacteria on our planet. The Soviet Union reported 10,000 cases of tularemia illness in 1941. In the next year, this number shot up to 100,000 during the German siege of Stalingrad. Unsurprisingly, most of these cases were on the German side, and several Soviet bioweapons researcher argued that this was no accident. Many reliable bioweapons scholars and researchers believe that as a result of biological warfare. In fact, Ken Alibek, one of former Soviet bioweapons researcher, helped develop a strain of vaccine-resistant tularemia for the Soviets before he defected to the United States in 1992. Thankfully, tularemia won’t spread between human mosts and can be easily prevented with a vaccine or treated with antibiotics. However, when used in aerosol form, it can spread very rapidly between humans and animal hosts. This factor earns tularemia a spot in Category A biological weapon list.
6 Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
Ebola virus is the culprit behind one of more than a dozen different viral hemorrhagic fevers, and a well-documented killer. Nasty illnesses and symptoms from this virus include copious bleeding. The virus made headlines in the late 1970s when it spread through Zaire and Sudan like wildfire, killing hundreds of people. Whenever there were outbreaks in Africa, Ebola virus has maintained its letal reputation. Even in controlled settings, it has proven to be a very volatile organism. Fortunately for majority of population (or rather unfortunately for the victims), no fewer than seven outbreaks have occured at hospitals and labs, mainly in Africa, the United States and Europe. Currently, the exact origin and natural habitat of Ebola virus is still a mystery, and scientists have only encountered Ebola virus after it has successfully infected a living being, either humans or non-human primates. The virus spreads via direct contact with bodily secretions or blood.
5 Rice Blast
Biological weapons don’t have to target and hit directly to humans. There are a number of bioweapons targeted to destroy food supply, which is a time-tasted military strategy. No food equals to weakened populations, panic, riot and eventual death. Many countries, especially Russia and the United States, have spent obscene amount of money in research projects about diseases and insects that target key food crops. One such weapon is rice blast, a crop disease caused by the fungus named Pyricularia oryzae. What this fungus does is that affected plants will develop grayish lesions on the leaves. And those lesions composed of thousands of fungal spores. Very soon, these spores quickly multiply and spread like wildfire, sapping the plans and leading to severely low crop production. If you are knowledgeable in agriculture, you might be thinking about “breeding resistant plants”. But with rice blast, you have another problem. The fungus is not just one strain, but 219 different strains, so unless you can develop ways to breed resistance to 219 strains, there is no chance.
3 Botulinum Toxin
This deadly bacteria, in weaponized airborne form, is completely colorless and odorless. If the air you inhale contains the toxin, you have no way to know. However, between 12 and 36 hours later, you will get first signs of botulism toxin: vomitting, blurred vision and difficulty in swallowing. Your only hope is antitoxin for this specific virus, and only before the symptoms advance much further. If you don’t get treatment, paralysis will begin. First your muscles then finally your respiratory system. This virus can kill in 24 to 72 hours, and hence, it is one of the six Category A biological weapons. C. botulinum virus actually occurs all over the world, especially in soil and marine sediments. Its availability, power and limited treatability have earned botulinum toxin a favourite spot for bioweapons programs. Fun fact: if small amounts of purified botulism toxin is used properly, the bacteria’s paralytic power can help sooth neurologic diseases and smooth away wrinkles. The brand name of that is something you already know: Botox.
2 Nipah Virus
Viruses don’t remain the same, but adapt and evolve. New strains emerge, mutations occur and the emergence of new viruses is inevitable. Nipah virus, named after the Nipah region in Malaysia, is one such thing. The outbreak in Nipah region in 1999 killed 105 and infected 265. Human to human transmission hasn’t been reported yet, thankfully. However, the exact nature of transference is still uncertain. Nipah virus and a number of other emerging pathogens are classified as a Category C biological weapon. Currently, no country is publicly known to have this virus as biological weapon, or researched about its weaponization. However, 50% mortality rate and its potential for widespread use make it a formidable bioweapon to watch out for.
1 Chimera Viruses
Natural evolution of natural viruses and bacteria aren’t out there to kill us intentionally. Harmful properties and dangerous natures they posses are just their natural characteristics. However, when you combine genetic makeup of those dangerous organisms with humans’ creative minds in finding ways to destroy other humans, you get unthinkable horrors in hand. No, we are not talking about zombie apocalpyse yet. although we are sure we won’t be writing this list when a zombie outbreak occurs. While zombie outbreak maybe a far fetch reality for now, the lab-creation of mutated dangerous organisms is already happening in our world. Geneticists have already discovered ways to combine several viruses, and increase the lethalit of such biological weapons. For instance, the Soviet Union’s Chimera Project during the late 1980s researched the viability of combining Ebola and smallpox into one super virus. Imagine two diseases infecting our population and threatening our lives!
Humongous waves of hot plasma roiling on the surface of the sun appear to be moving at speeds as high as 4.5 million miles per hour, a new study has found. The waves are so huge it would take up to 16 Earths, end-to-end, to match them.
It’s the first unambiguous evidence that the sun’s lower atmosphere contains such superfast “magnetosonic waves,” scientists said.
The fast waves have velocities of 2.3 million to 4.5 million mph, periods in the range of 30 to 200 seconds, and wavelengths of 62,000 to 124,000 miles, equivalent to stacking between eight to 16 Earths on top of one another.
Scientists discovered the waves with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), dedicated to observing the sun from orbit around Earth.
Ripples in a pond
Waves on the sun are produced when a flare or eruption on the solar surface kicks up hot plasma, similar to ripples in water produced when a rock is dropped into a still pond.
Scientists have observed slow-moving waves on the sun, but fast-moving waves, which were also predicted by theory, had so far gone undetected because previous space telescopes could not take pictures rapidly enough to image these fast waves.
“They seem to be a common phenomenon,” said Karel Schrijver, principal physicist at the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory in Palo Alto, Calif., in a statement. “During the first year of the SDO mission, despite the sun being relatively quiet, we have seen about a dozen such waves. Although their exact trigger mechanism is currently under investigation, they appear to be intimately related to flares that sometimes exhibit pulsations at similar frequencies.”
Waves such as these are believed to be responsible for many fundamental yet enigmatic processes on the sun, such as heating the corona to millions of degrees, accelerating the solar wind, triggering remote eruptions and delivering energy and information between different parts of the atmosphere.
By observing these waves, scientists hope to better understand the solar physics of such processes and their consequences on near-Earth space and the terrestrial environment.
“This discovery and analysis is very significant because we are witnessing phenomena of which we were previously unaware,” said Alan Title, principal investigator of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at the Lockheed Martin lab, who first noticed the fast propagating waves in routine SDO movies. “In light of this discovery, the more we look at solar flares, the more of these waves we see, and as observation and analysis lead to insight, the better we will understand the processes involved.”
Stanford University scientist Wei Liu, a research associate at the Lockheed Martin laboratory, presented the findings Wednesday at the annual meeting of the Solar Physics Division of the American Astronomical Society in Las Cruces, N.M. The researchers also detail their discovery in a paper to be published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.
Surfer waves on the sun?
Another recent study of waves on the sun found “surfer” waves the size of the United States in the solar corona.
These so-called Kelvin-Helmholtz waves, also discovered using data from SDO, could help astronomers understand how energy moves through the solar atmosphere.
“One of the biggest questions about the solar corona is the heating mechanism,” said solar physicist Leon Ofman of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., and Catholic University, Washington. “The corona is a thousand times hotter than the sun’s visible surface, but what heats it up is not well-understood. People have suggested that waves like this might cause turbulence which cause heating, but now we have direct evidence of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves.”
- Science successfully explains natural phenomena through rational investigation and logical reasoning rather than by recourse to superstition and mysticism.
- When scientific disputes arise, the ultimate arbiter is not expert authority or common sense but experimental evidence, guided by theory.
- Scientific theories are not “guesses” but are logically rigorous attempts to explain the observed facts of nature and to predict the results of new observations.
- When a theory’s predictions are confirmed, it becomes an essential tool in the further practice of science, but even good theories may someday be superseded by theories more comprehensive or more accurate.
- The universe is vast and old, with our sun one of billions of stars in a local galaxy, joined by billions of similar galaxies occupying the depths of space beyond.
- Life has changed over the eons, with complex creatures evolving from simpler precursors, and human beings therefore occupy one branch of an immense family tree of living organisms — all sharing a common molecular machinery driving basic life processes.
- As Einstein demonstrated, conceptions of time and space based on everyday life don’t apply accurately to all speeds and all realms of space.
- The microworld of the atom, and realms even smaller, obey “quantum” laws completely at odds with common sense, and notions of cause and effect and the very nature of reality are inherently blurred on that scale.
- The way a thing works is often influenced by its connections to other things and the ways that they work, a principle that applies to everything from the networks of cells in the brain and the body’s other organs, to ecological and economic systems, to human interactions and social institutions.
- Little is certain in science but much is highly probable, and the proper quantification of probabilities is essential for inferring facts, drawing conclusions and formulating sound judgments.
You can supercool sodium acetate and cause it to crystallize on command. – Anne Helmenstine
You can supercool hot ice or sodium acetate so that it will remain a liquid below its melting point. You can trigger crystallization on command, forming sculptures as the liquid solidifies. The reaction is exothermic so heat is generated by the hot ice.
Sodium acetate or hot ice is an amazing chemical you can prepare yourself from baking soda and vinegar. You can cool a solution of sodium acetate below its melting point and then cause the liquid to crystallize. The crystallization is an exothermic process, so the resulting ice is hot. Solidification occurs so quickly you can form sculptures as you pour the hot ice.
Sodium Acetate or Hot Ice Materials
1 liter clear vinegar (weak acetic acid)
4 tablespoons baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)
Prepare the Sodium Acetate or Hot Ice
In a saucepan or large beaker, add baking soda to the vinegar, a little at a time and stirring between additions. The baking soda and vinegar react to form sodium acetate and carbon dioxide gas. If you don’t add the baking soda slowly, you’ll essentially get a baking soda and vinegar volcano, which would overflow your container. You’ve made the sodium acetate, but it is too dilute to be very useful, so you need to remove most of the water.
Here is the reaction between the baking soda and vinegar to produce the sodium acetate:
Na+[HCO3]– + CH3–COOH → CH3–COO– Na+ + H2O + CO2
Boil the solution to concentrate the sodium acetate. You could just remove the solution from heat once you have 100-150 ml of solution remaining, but the easiest way to get good results is to simply boil the solution until a crystal skin or film starts to form on the surface. This took me about an hour on the stove over medium heat. If you use lower heat you are less likely to get yellow or brown liguid, but it will take longer. If discoloration occurs, it’s okay.
Once you remove the sodium acetate solution from heat, immediately cover it to prevent any further evaporation. I poured my solution into a separate container and covered it with plastic wrap. You should not have any crystals in your solution. If you do have crystals, stir a very small amount of water or vinegar into the solution, just sufficient to dissolve the crystals.
Place the covered container of sodium acetate solution in the refrigerator to chill.
Activities Involving Hot Ice
The sodium acetate in the solution in the refrigerator is an example of a supercooled liquid. That is, the sodium acetate exists in liquid form below its usual melting point. You can initiate crystallization by adding a small crystal of sodium acetate or possibly even by touching the surface of the sodium acetate solution with a spoon or finger. The crystallization is an example of an exothermic process. Heat is released as the ‘ice’ forms. To demonstrate supercooling, crystallization, and heat release you could:
Drop a crystal into the container of cooled sodium acetate solution. The sodium acetate will crystallize within seconds, working outward from where you added the crystal. The crystal acts as a nucleation site or seed for rapid crystal growth. Although the solution just came out of the refrigerator, if you touch the container you will find it is now warm or hot.
Pour the solution onto a shallow dish. If the hot ice does not spontaneously begin crystallization, you can touch it with a crystal of sodium acetate (you can usually scrape a small amount of sodium acetate from the side of the container you used earlier). The crystallization will progress from the dish up toward where you are pouring the liquid. You can construct towers of hot ice. The towers will be warm to the touch.
You can re-melt sodium acetate and re-use it for demonstrations.
Hot Ice Safety
As you would expect, sodium acetate is a safe chemical for use in demonstrations. It is used as a food additive to enhance flavor and is the active chemical in many hot packs. The heat generated by the crystallization of a refrigerated sodium acetate solution should not present a burn hazard.
Hot Ice Help
Answers to common questions about hot ice are available that should help solve any problems you may encounter with this project. There is also a video tutorial showing how to make hot ice.
Another trivia list! This list explores a variety of fascinating scientific facts that you probably are unaware of. Science is still a very mysterious subject so there are millions of trivial facts about it – this will be the first of many scientific fact lists in the future.
1. There are 62,000 miles of blood vessels in the human body – laid end to end they would circle the earth 2.5 times
2. At over 2000 kilometers long, The Great Barrier Reef is the largest living structure on Earth
3. The risk of being struck by a falling meteorite for a human is one occurrence every 9,300 years
4. A thimbleful of a neutron star would weigh over 100 million tons
5. A typical hurricane produces the energy equivalent of 8,000 one megaton bombs
6. Blood sucking hookworms inhabit 700 million people worldwide
7. The highest speed ever achieved on a bicycle is 166.94 mph, by Fred Rompelberg
8. We can produce laser light a million times brighter than sunshine
9. 65% of those with autism are left handed
10. The combined length of the roots of a Finnish pine tree is over 30 miles
11. The oceans contain enough salt to cover all the continents to a depth of nearly 500 feet
12. The interstellar gas cloud Sagittarius B contains a billion, billion, billion liters of alcohol [JFrater is planning to move there in the near future]
13. Polar Bears can run at 25 miles an hour and jump over 6 feet in the air
14. 60-65 million years ago dolphins and humans shared a common ancestor
15. Polar Bears are nearly undetectable by infrared cameras, due to their transparent fur
16. The average person accidentally eats 430 bugs each year of their life
17. A single rye plant can spread up to 400 miles of roots underground
18. The temperature on the surface of Mercury exceeds 430 degrees C during the day, and, at night, plummets to minus 180 degrees centigrade
19. The evaporation from a large oak or beech tree is from ten to twenty-five gallons in twenty-four hours
20. Butterflies taste with their hind feet, and their taste sensation works on touch – this allows them to determine whether a leaf is edible
The inquiry comes up frequently. Numerous individuals have been smoldered by SEO Services, yet numerous have additionally been compensated by SEO Services. Like any business exchange or buy you ought to just spend your cash when you feel great. Your customary range of familiarity ought to pull from different conditions, for example, how well do you know this business, to what extent have you been working with this individual or substance, what is your early introduction, how would you by and by feel about this individual or element capacity to give this administration, and how well have you gotten your work done.
Reality about SEO Company in Mumbai administrations is that it is typically not diligent work, but rather that doesn’t mean its simple. Despite everything it requires investment, commitment, exertion, procedure, system, technique, aptitude, and experience to perform quality SEO administrations. Anybody can utilize SEO administrations in light of the fact that it is inside of your scope to learn, yet not everybody can apply sensible method to make SEO work. That is the reason SEO architects are expected to fulfill the verging on outlandish, however the inquiry is how would you know you are settling on the right decision and not overpaying for SEO administrations?
I can sincerely say generally SEO administration suppliers are all good who need simply to do proficient business and give quality SEO administrations. Recognizing each shady SEO administration may not be conceivable, but rather I have some suggested counsel which ought to help anybody get a reasonable and quality rate for SEO administrations.
- Set yourself a “sensible” advertising spending plan and objective
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- Remember “modest improves”
- Ask for references/referrals/portfolio
- Verify references/referrals/portfolio
- Ask for measurable development and advancement reports
- Set Yourself a Realistic Marketing Budget and Goal
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Locate the most engaging SEO administrations and contrast those with other aggressive SEO administrations. Try not to settle for “shoddy” or “modest”, yet settle for “viable” and “methodology”. Anybody can do SEO work, yet not everybody can enhance results utilizing SEO administrations. This is on the grounds that, SEO speaks the truth procedure and methodology. It’s not about simply tossing thousands a connections around the web and sitting back sitting tight for the blast. Its really a great deal more confounded than that, as it speaks the truth having system, strategy, and focused edge. You must discover SEO administrations which live by this guideline and can offer you the key guide you requirement for achievement.
Try not to Buy Until You Feel Comfortable
You ought to dependably feel good with entrusting your cash into a Web Hosting Mumbai administration supplier paws. On the off chance that you have extraordinary needs, for example, you need to sign an agreement, you need a particular pay timetable, or you have any inquiries, verify you get answers and are OK with the anticipated result then make headway. I for one recommend getting an agreement which plots the anticipated result and whatever other visual cues, then likewise investigating the results or potential outcomes if the anticipated result is not met.
Keep in mind “Shoddy Does Not Always Mean Better”
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- Demonstrate the commercial potential of emerging technology in order to determine the feasibility of further development for any given technology. Reza Bandarian, in “The Evaluation of Commercial Potential of a New Technology at the Early Stage of Development with Fuzzy Logic” study, defines commercialization as converting or moving technology into a profit making position.
According to the International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, the comprehensive Strategic Technology Evaluation Program (STEP) is a method plan model designed to link and coordinate existing agencies and services to assist in early evaluation of new environmental technologies.
The STEP process can be helpful in determining what opportunities may exist for the commercialization of a particular technology. According to the Journal of Technology Management and Innovation, any new technology being considered to reach the market should be able to thrive and prosper in an evolving and unpredictable business environment.
- Use the STEP model to determine a technology’s commercial potential. This is a necessary prerequisite in defining what could be a successful commercialization strategy. The STEP can help determine the commercial potential of a certain candidate technology during the early stages of development. This strategy is useful to avoid spending unnecessary time and effort on a project.
- Include a number of characteristics which are broken into certain categories based on STEP, for every new technology. For example, according to Microsoft, building an enterprise application integration solution could include such tasks as helping to understand the functional quality requirements for some integrated applications. It can also include creating the initial architectural blueprint and selecting suitable integration applications to fulfill the application requirements for integrated applications. Another component can be validating that the combination of architecture and integration technology used to build the enterprise-wide application are likely to be successful before a major implementation investment is made.
- Ensure that the STEP approach described is continuously modified so as to evaluate the commercial potential of many emerging types of technologies. STEP is a framework that can be modified to fit different situations as may be found appropriate. According to Inder Science, versions of the STEP model have been tested on well over 100 emerging technologies as well as varied benchmarked market opportunity analyses. The STEP model presents technology screening, terminology and training of evaluator structural enhancements. Potential uses can include screening, prediction and evaluation factors that may affect technology’s commercial potential.
Small but terrible. That’s what insects are. Indeed, most insects can fit in the palm of your hand and yet, they can also result in the biggest fears, with even adults screaming at the sight of them. Don’t think they’re creepy? Well, these ten facts may just change your mind.
1. A cockroach can live for weeks without its head.
Cockroaches are some of the creepiest insects around for two main reasons. One, they carry tons of bacteria that can cause harmful diseases and two, they are so hard to kill. And we mean hard. A cockroach can live for weeks without food and water. They can hold their breath for up to 40 minutes which means flushing them down the toilet isn’t a surefire way to kill them. And they can even survive a nuclear explosion.
Not convinced about how hardy cockroaches are? Well, take this – cockroaches can live weeks without their heads. So don’t be surprised if you see a headless cockroach crawling around (even though you might just feel like screaming). This is because cockroaches don’t need their brains to breathe or move. Those functions are controlled by organs found in other parts of their body. They also won’t bleed to death like we would when our heads are cut. The wound would just clot like any other wound.
This doesn’t mean, though, that cockroaches are immortal. They will still die eventually from hunger and thirst since they need their heads to eat and drink.
Oh, and one more thing. A cockroach head can also survive on its own for several hours or even days if it’s refrigerated. Now, what’s more gruesome? A headless cockroach or a moving cockroach head?
2. Honey bees have hair on their eyeballs.
Honey bees have one of the best eyesights in the insect world. They have five eyes, two of which are compound, meaning they are made up of thousands of smaller eyes. These compound eyes are so efficient, they can see up to 300 frames per second and they can also see ultraviolet light.
That’s amazing but here’s something creepy about the eyes of honey bees. They have hair. The fine hairs help the bees to pick up and transfer more pollen. Also, they can help the bees tell the direction of the wind and to detect the humidity in the air.
3. In some parts of the world, army ants are used to close wounds.
Some army ants have such powerful mandibles that when they bite you, you’ll really scream from the pain. Some won’t even let go of your skin even after they’re dead, leaving behind nasty puncture wounds.
Their strong jaws are not always harmful, though. In East Africa and parts of the Amazon, army ants are used to close the wounds. In the case of a bad cut, they get army ants to bite both sides of the cut, holding the skin together. This effectively stops the bleeding, much like stitches do and can hold for up to a few days, allowing the wound to heal. This practice is so effective it has been around since 1000 BC.
4. Some caterpillars disguise themselves as bird poop.
Caterpillars are a favorite snack of birds so to protect themselves, they’ve taken on various appearances. Some look like twigs. Others look like snake heads and the puss moth has a unique, startling appearance altogether.
Then there are the caterpillars that disguise themselves as bird poop such as the white admiral, the giant swallowtail, the Asian swallowtail and the viceroy caterpillars. They are black or gray with tinges of yellow and white, just like bird poop, and some of them are even slightly dangling off a branch or a leaf, making them look more convincing. And it works! Studies show that birds are three times less likely to attack a hanging bird poop-looking caterpillar than a straight one.
5. Female praying mantises eat their mates.
Not always. Sometimes, if the male is lucky enough, he can run for it and survive. If he’s out of luck, though, the larger and stronger female will end up eating him. Head first. In fact, some females start eating the heads of the males even before mating. Amazingly, he’s still able to get the job done but he won’t be going anywhere afterwards.
Why does the female praying mantis do this? Easy. She’s just hungry. Praying mantises are ferocious hunters, after all.
6. Twisted-wing parasite larvae eat their mother.
What’s worse than eating your own mate? Probably eating your own mother, which is exactly what the twisted-wing parasite larvae do.
These tiny insects live inside bees, wasps and cockroaches. The adult males grow wings and eventually leave the host to find females to mate with but the females, once inside a host, never leave, simply sticking their butts out of the host so that they can be mated with. After mating, the females get pregnant and when the babies are ready to come out, they eat their mother from the inside, bursting out of her brood canal. Now, that’s a painful birth. Eventually, the larvae develop legs and they crawl out of the host to find a new one where they will grow and develop into adults. And the cycle starts all over again.
7. House flies poop constantly.
See that fly perched on the wall or at the edge of your table? It’s probably pooping.
House flies eat a lot of food but they can’t take it all in or they wouldn’t be able to fly, so they’re also constantly pooping. Oh, and they regularly vomit, too. That’s because they can’t chew solid food. When they find solid food, like a slice of bread, for example, what they do is that they vomit on it in order to soften it and when it becomes soft enough, they suck it all in, vomit and food and all.
So the next time you see a fly land on something you’re eating, forget about putting it inside your mouth. The fly might have already pooped on it or threw up on it – and your guess is as good as anyone’s as to what meal it ate last. Even if it didn’t, keep in mind that a single house fly can carry up to 30 million bacteria, 6 million on its legs that touched your food! Yuck!
8. Leaf beetle larvae have shields made of poop.
Speaking of poop, the larvae of various species of leaf beetles have found a use for theirs. They use them to make shields – fecal shields. These shields act not just as physical barriers like the shields warriors use but also act as chemical barriers, filled with chemical compounds that repel other insects that might think of eating them. The shape and size of the shield varies among species, with some stuck to the larva’s back or held up by the larva like an umbrella. Either way, the larva needs a lot of energy to carry the shield, which can weigh up to half its own weight.
9. Assassin bugs suck the insides of their prey.
Assassin bugs are well-named. They sneak up to other insects – caterpillars, beetles, flies, bees, crickets, cockroaches – even those larger than they are and then they stab it with their long straw-like mouth, injecting a good amount of their saliva. The saliva is toxic and turns the insides of the insect into liquid, allowing the assassin bug to gradually suck them out, leaving behind the empty, lifeless shell. Sometimes, they even start sucking the insides of their prey while it is still alive, holding it down using their hairy legs.
Assassin bugs can be beneficial because they feed on pests. However, they can also be harmful. Some assassin bugs can deliver a very painful bite when picked up while others can transmit Chaga’s Disease, which kills about 13,000 people each year in Central and South America.
10. Voodoo wasps turn caterpillars into their bodyguards.
The voodoo wasp is another insect that lives up to its name. You see, female voodoo wasps lay their eggs inside a caterpillar’s body. After the eggs hatch, the pupae crawl out of the caterpillar. The caterpillar appears dead, unmoving, but watch when a predator such as another bug comes near. Suddenly, the caterpillar wildly thrashes about as if a spell has been cast upon it. The result? The predator leaves and the pupae are safe. In essence, the caterpillar has not only become the living nursery for the pupae, but it is also transformed into their bodyguard, a process scientists have yet to explain. (Who knows? Maybe wasps can practice voodoo.)
Here’s the strange thing about amphibian evolution: You wouldn’t know it from the small (and rapidly dwindling) population of frogs, toads and salamanders alive today, but for tens of millions of years spanning the late Carboniferous and early Permian periods amphibians were the dominant land animals on earth. Some of these ancient creatures achieved crocodile-like sizes (up to 15 feet long, which may not seem so big today but was positively huge 300 million years ago) and terrorized smaller animals as the “apex predators” of their swampy ecosystems.
Before going further, it’s helpful to define what the word “amphibian” means. Amphibians differ from other vertebrates in three main ways: first, newborn hatchlings live underwater and breathe via gills, which then disappear as the juvenile undergoes a “metamorphosis” into its adult, air-breathing form (juveniles and adults can look very different, as in the case of baby tadpoles and full-grown frogs). Second, adult amphibians lay their eggs in water, which significantly limits their mobility when colonizing land. And third (and less strictly), the skin of modern amphibians tends to be “slimy” rather than reptile-scaly, which allows for the additional transport of oxygen for respiration.
The First Amphibians
As is often the case in evolutionary history, it’s impossible to pinpoint the exact moment when the first tetrapods (the four-legged fish that crawled out of the shallow seas 400 million years ago and swallowed gulps of air with primitive lungs) turned into the first true amphibians.
In fact, until recently, it was fashionable to describe these tetrapods as amphibians, until it occurred to experts that most tetrapods didn’t share the full spectrum of amphibian characteristics. For example, three important genera of the early Carboniferous period–Eucritta, Crassigyrinus and Greererpeton–can be variously (and fairly) described as either tetrapods or amphibians, depending on which features are being considered.
It’s only in the late Carboniferous period, from about 310 to 300 million years ago, that we can comfortably refer to the first true amphibians. By this time, some genera had attained relatively monstrous sizes–a good example being Eogyrinus (“dawn tadpole”), a slender, crocodile-like creature that measured 15 feet from head to tail. (Interestingly, the skin of Eogyrinus was scaly rather than moist, evidence that the earliest amphibians needed to protect themselves from dehydration.) Another late Carboniferous/early Permian genus, Eryops, was much shorter than Eogyrinus but more sturdily built, with massive, tooth-studded jaws and strong legs.
At this point, it’s worth noting a rather frustrating fact about amphibian evolution: modern amphibians (which are technically known as “lissamphibians”) are only remotely related to these early monsters. Lissamphibians (which include frogs, toads, salamanders, newts and rare, earthworm-like amphibians called “caecilians”) are believed to have radiated from a common ancestor that lived in the middle Permian or early Triassic periods, and it’s unclear what relationship this common ancestor may have had to late Carboniferous amphibians like Eryops and Eogyrinus. (It’s possible that modern lissamphibians branched off from the late Carboniferous Amphibamus, but not everyone subscribes to this theory.)
The Two Types of Prehistoric Amphibians: Lepospondyls and Temnospondyls
As a general (though not very scientific) rule, the amphibians of the Carboniferous and Permian periods can be divided into two camps: small and weird-looking (the lepospondyls), and big and reptile-like (the temnospondyls). The lepospondyls were mostly aquatic or semi-aquatic, and more likely to have the slimy skin characteristic of modern amphibians. Some of these creatures (such as Ophiderpeton and Phlegethontia) resembled small snakes; others (like Microbrachis) were reminiscent of salamanders; and some were simply unclassifiable. A good example of the last is Diplocaulus: this three-foot-long lepospondyl had a huge, boomerang-shaped skull, which might have functioned as an undersea rudder.
Dinosaur enthusiasts should find the temnospondyls easier to swallow. These amphibians anticipated the classic reptilian body plan of the Mesozoic Era (long trunks, stubby legs, big heads, and in some cases scaly skin), and many of them (like Metoposaurus and Prionosuchus) resembled large crocodiles. Probably the most infamous of the temnospondyl amphibians was the impressively named Mastodonsaurus (the name means “nipple-toothed lizard” and has nothing to do with the elephant ancestor), which had an almost comically oversized head that accounted for nearly a third of its 20-foot-long body.
For a good portion of the Permian period, the temnospondyl amphibians were the top predators of the earth’s land masses. That all changed with the evolution of the therapsids (“mammal-like reptiles”) toward the end of the Permian period; these large, nimble carnivores chased the temnospondyls back into the swamps, where most of them slowly died out by the beginning of the Triassic period. There were a few scattered survivors, though: for example, the 15-foot-long Koolasuchus thrived in Australia in the middle Cretaceous period, about a hundred million years after its temnospondyl cousins of the northern hemisphere had gone extinct.
Introducing Frogs and Salamanders
As stated above, modern amphibians (known as “lissamphibians”) branched off from a common ancestor that lived anywhere from the middle Permian to the early Triassic periods. Since the evolution of this group is a matter of continuing study and debate, the best we can do is identify the “earliest” true frogs and salamanders, with the caveat that future fossil discoveries may push the clock back even further. (Some experts claim that the late Permian Gerobatrachus, also known as the Frogamander, was ancestral to these two groups, but the verdict is mixed.)
As far as prehistoric frogs are concerned, the best current candidate is Triadobatrachus (“triple frog”), which lived about 250 million years ago, during the early Triassic period. Triadobatrachus differed from modern frogs in some important ways (for example, it had a tail, the better to accommodate its unusually large number of vertebrae, and it could only flail its hind legs rather than use them to execute long-distance jumps), but its resemblance to modern frogs is unmistakable. The earliest known true frog was the tiny Vieraella of South America, while the first true salamander is believed to have been Karaurus, a tiny, slimy, big-headed amphibian that lived in late Jurassic central Asia.
Ironically–considering that they evolved over 300 million years ago and have survived, with various waxings and wanings, into modern times–amphibians are among the most threatened creatures on the earth today. Over the last few decades, a startling number of frog, toad and salamander species spiraled toward extinction, though no one knows exactly why: the culprits may include pollution, global warming, deforestation, disease, or a combination of these and other factors. If current trends persist, amphibians may be the first major classification of vertebrates to disappear off the face of the earth!
Just say the word “tyrannosaur,” and most people immediately picture the king of all dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus Rex. However, as any paleontologist worth his pickaxe will tell you, T. Rex was far from the only tyrannosaur roaming the forests, plains, and swamplands of the Cretaceous period (although it was certainly one of the biggest). From the perspective of a small, quivering herbivorous dinosaur, Daspletosaurus, Alioramus, and a dozen or so other tyrannosaur genera were every bit as dangerous, and their teeth were just as sharp.
As with other broad classifications of dinosaurs, the definition of a tyrannosaur (Greek for “tyrant lizard”) involves a combination of arcane anatomical features and broad swathes of physiology. Generally speaking, though, tyrannosaurs are best described as large, bipedal, meat- eating theropod dinosaurs possessing powerful legs and torsos; large, heavy heads studded with numerous sharp teeth; and tiny, almost vestigial-looking arms. As a general rule, tyrannosaurs tended to resemble one another more closely than did the members of other dinosaur families (such as ceratopsians), but there are some exceptions, as noted below. (By the way, tyrannosaurs weren’t the only theropod dinosaurs of the Cretaceous period; other members of this populous breed included raptors, ornithomimids and feathered “dino-birds.”)
The First Tyrannosaurs
As you might already have guessed, tyrannosaurs were closely related to dromaeosaurs–the relatively small, two-legged, vicious dinosaurs better known as raptors.
In this light, it’s not surprising that one of the oldest tyrannosaurs yet discovered–Guanlong, which lived in Asia about 160 million years ago–was about the size of your average raptor, about 10 feet long from head to tail. Other early tyrannosaurs, like Eotyrannus and Dilong (which both lived in the early Cretaceous), were also fairly petite, if no less vicious. (The middle to late Jurassic period witnessed other small, tyrannosaur-like dinosaurs, including Kileskus and Aviatyrannis.)
There’s one other fact about Dilong that may permanently change your image of those supposedly mighty tyrannosaurs. Based on analysis of its fossil remains, paleontologists believe this small, Asian dinosaur of the early Cretaceous period (about 130 million years ago) sported a coat of primitive, hair-like feathers. This discovery has led some experts to speculate that all juvenile tyrannosaurs, even the mighty Tyrannosaurus Rex, may have had early feather coats, which they shed on reaching adulthood. (Recently, the discovery in China’s Liaoning fossil beds of the large, feathered Yutyrannus has lent weight to the feathered tyrannosaur hypothesis.)
Their initial similarities notwithstanding, tyrannosaurs and raptors quickly diverged along separate evolutionary paths. Most notably, the tyrannosaurs of the late Cretaceous period attained enormous sizes: a full-grown Tyrannosaurus Rex measured about 40 feet long and weighed 7 or 8 tons, while the biggest raptor, the middle Cretaceous Utahraptor, punched in at 2,000 pounds, max. Raptors were also far more agile, slashing at prey with their arms and legs, while the main weapons used by tyrannosaurs were their numerous, sharp teeth and crushing jaws.
Tyrannosaurs truly came into their own during the late Cretaceous period (90 to 65 million years ago), when they prowled modern-day North America and Eurasia. Thanks to numerous (and often surprisingly complete) fossil remains, we know a lot about how tyrannosaurs looked, but not as much about their day-to-day behavior. For example, there’s still intense debate about whether Tyrannosaurus Rex actively hunted for its food, scavenged already-dead remains, or both, or whether the average plus-sized tyrannosaur could run faster than a relatively poky 10 miles per hour, about the speed of a kid on a bicycle.
From our modern perspective, perhaps the most puzzling feature of tyrannosaurs is their tiny arms (especially compared to the long arms and flexible hands of their raptor cousins). Today, most paleontologists think the function of these stunted limbs was to lever their owner to an upright position when it was lying on the ground, but it’s also possible that tyrannosaurs used their short arms to clutch prey tightly to their chests, or even to get a good grip on females during mating! (By the way, tyrannosaurs weren’t the only dinosaurs possessing comically short arms; the arms of Carnotaurus, a non-tyrannosaur theropod, were even shorter.)
How Many Tyrannosaurs?
Because later tyrannosaurs like Tyrannosaurus Rex, Albertosaurus and Gorgosaurus closely resembled one another, there’s some disagreement among paleontologists about whether certain tyrannosaurs really merit their own genus (a “genus” is the next step up above an individual species; for example, the genus known as Stegosaurus comprises a handful of closely related species). This situation isn’t improved by the occasional discovery of (very) incomplete tyrannosaur remains, which can make assigning a likely genus an impossible bit of detective work.
To take one case, the genus known as Gorgosaurus isn’t accepted by everyone in the dinosaur community, some experts believing this was really an individual species of Albertosaurus. And in a similar vein, some paleontologists think the dinosaur known as Nanotyrannus (“tiny tyrant”) may actually have been a juvenile Tyrannosaurus Rex, the offspring of a closely related genus, or perhaps a new kind of raptor and not a tyrannosaur at all!
Learning about Anti-Aging Products The companies that sell anti-aging products see the potential of creating new timeline products just because more and more people are getting interested to use them. The old people are definitely the prime target market of the companies that promote creams, dietary products, cosmetics, and health and nutrition supplements. However, it is important to consider that not only old people want to use anti-aging products. Anti-aging products are definitely a big help especially if you want to avoid wrinkles and the like. Since old folks want to look young again, it is very evident in commercials that the promoters are all young-looking people. While still young, it would really make sense to start using anti-aging products because it would help in the slowing of aging’s harmful effects. The new anti-aging products could help old people to prevent aging but since they are already old, they could never stay young unlike the young ones who started using them at the prime of their youth. If you really want to benefit a lot about those new anti-aging products in the market, then, you should start using them while you are at a young age. Being youthful can be gained by using skin care creams and lotions because they moisturize your skin. If you want to see your skin being moisturized, you have to start using those creams and lotions as early as twenty. Teenagers must also start using those products because they have to treat their acne problems. You will never become problematic about your skin condition in the future if you will take time to reduce the acne problems as early as today. Wrinkles often come from untreated skin, so the anti-aging products could certainly help a lot in preventing them. When you take good care of your own skin during the prime of your youth, you would always love to show your youthful appearance to the people surrounding you. If you do not want to suffer the consequences in the future, it is a must to take good care of your skin during your youth.
What You Should Know About Resources This Year
Since you want your aging process to be slowed down, you take time researching and find out that skin care and cosmetic products are numerous. You may also want to take nutritional supplements that would help you get what you deserve. Since you can never do away with aging, you should find some great natural products in the market to slow it down. Find out which one is best and consume it according to the suggested use.
Study: My Understanding of Options
Young and old people both need supplements to aid their minds and bodies. Anti-aging products can really help you if you want good health condition.
- As real-time global communication brings individuals closer together; business must identify product and service opportunities using a more human-centric approach. Studying the behaviors of consumers helps businesses to adjust business models and advertising to attract specific demographics. An example of how societal trend affect business is the new trend of “Social TV.” A joint 2010 U.S. study by Nielsen and Yahoo! discovered that more than 86 percent of mobile Internet users communicate with each other during television broadcasts. A 2011 survey by Digital Clarity discovered that 72 percent of people under 25 in the U.K. use social networking to comment on shows as they watch them.
- Globalization and technology are changing business. New business models take into account the global market place through the development of global strategic markets, manufacturing and advertising collaborations. A business’ capacity to understand global and societal trends will determine its products, marketplaces, marketing and its survivability.
As business and technology continue to create global networks, the need for security will increase. Businesses will need every-changing data security plans to continually safeguard sensitive data and protect consumers from fraud and identity theft. Disaster-recovery plans also become essential as disasters in other countries may affect business product or sales in another. Businesses need emergency procedures in place to cover all kinds of disasters including terrorism and societal unrest.
- Innovations in communication technologies have given birth to social networking. Real-time reviews of products and services instantly affect businesses. Moviegoers no longer wait for movie review or to tell their friends about their movie experiences, instead they use social networks for movie fans, such as flixster.com, to post their comments. Movies that could make money over a weekend now fail on their first day of release. Global issues, such as energy and the environment will encourage businesses to develop green technologies to reduce energy expenditures and clean the environment. Emerging green technologies, such as fuel-celled power, will continue to develop. Business will begin to look to energy-efficient technologies to reduce costs.
- The Great Recession has had an impact on the America and global economy. In a 2010 survey conducted by Pew Research Center, 54 percent of Americans say they are just getting by while four out of 10 surveyed say the recession forced them to make major lifestyle changes. Most surveyed cited cutting back or eliminating non-essential items and entertainment to save money.
Recessions also affect global migration and hiring. According to the International Organization for Migration, about 3 percent of the global workforce works as migrant labor. These workers are often the first to be let go in their host country and find difficulties repatriating to find work. Studies in the U.S., Canada and Europe indicate business tends to contact applicants with native names more than applicants with ethnic names. During harsh economic times, finding employment can become difficult and consumers tend to limit purchasing to essential items. These economic stresses require businesses to re-evaluate product and service development to retain viability.
Where to Get Web Hosting Services Web hosting can be expensive for people who are not interested about the full advantages offered by this on the online business. You will be able to find several companies that are really well-known and they are able to put up their site in a really professional way. This does not really mean that the small businesses should be left behind in the online market since there are various web hosting providers that can offer excellent services without having to spend a huge amount of cash. You need to find a reliable web hosting service provider. What you need to do is to look for an established hosting provider. The good hosting service and properly structured website can really make various leads for the small business. Many of the sites on the internet are made to offer information to capture the leads and be able to sell something. For instance, a site which focuses e-commerce, using checkout points and shopping carts will really need web hosting. When you find a web hosting service provider, there are a lot of things that you must take into account to avoid making the wrong choice. You have to look for a company that offers cheap rates. Also, you should be able to get about 99.9% uptime guarantee. There must also be a well-managed database. Look for a service provider that has premium 24-hour tech support with email, phone and also live chat access so that you can contact them at once when you ned help. Also, you must be sure that they have a fantastic track record and their customer reviews are excellent too. They must also offer various hosting account options from dedicated hosting to a shared hosting.
Short Course on Websites – Covering The Basics
The businesses which are running online should be guaranteed a fantastic uptime. There can be lots of hosting providers but there are those that aren’t reliable and this is why you should not go wrong when you make a choice of the company that you should go for. So that you can do this, then what you must do is that you have to spend time in looking for the right company to go for. Also, they must provide you with an excellent shared hosting package for your small business. Also, upgrading the package must not be difficult with your chosen company so that it will be much easier for you to do this when your business flourishes and expands.
A 10-Point Plan for Webhosting (Without Being Overwhelmed)
You don’t need to be in a hurry when you search for a web hosting service provider that you can rely on. You have to be sure that you check their work so that you can really find one that you can trust.
In case you were wondering, at last count 1,659,420 species of animals have been described by scientists. Nearly 80% of those are arthropods, or insects and their crunchy relatives.
Our Planet of the Arthropods is dominated by insects, and when and how insects took over the earth is a question that’s puzzled naturalists for centuries. In an incredible international effort, 100 scientists combined their molecular, computational biology, statistics, paleontology, and taxonomic expertise to uncover some surprising conclusions about when major groups of insects evolved:
B. Misof, et al. 2014. Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution. Science 346 (6210): 763-767.
How do you solve a problem like the insects?
The back story of this research is almost as interesting as the results. Making sense of the diversity of insects in collections has traditionally been a task for a lone expert, usually specializing in just one subset of a group. They become so identified with their study organisms, they may be introduced as “The Ant Man” or “The Wasp Woman.” (No taxonomists I know wear spandex tights and capes to work, for which I am profoundly grateful.) With over a million described species, it’s not hard to see how someone might spend an entire life trying to make order out of biodiversity chaos.
Taxonomy has a history of conflict and eccentricity, and the entry of new molecular technologies into the world of tiny pins and museum specimens hasn’t always been smooth. When sequencing was expensive and time consuming, the question was “which species should we do next?” Competition for funding and lab space was brisk.
With advances in both computing and Next-Generation sequencing, the speed and cost of sequencing dropped enough that scientists can band together and ask bigger questions. Brian Wiegmann of North Carolina State University (Author #74) put this elegantly: “It’s not enough to just catalog the books in the library; we want to understand their contents.”
Bernhard Misof from the Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Germany (Author #1), Xin Zhou from the China National GeneBank, BGI-Shenzhen, China (Author #100), and Karl Kjer from Rutgers University, USA (Author #99), came up with an ambitious plan. They formed 1KITE; the acronym stands for 1K Insect Transcriptome Evolution. A global crew of experts was recruited to help create an open-access inventory of transcriptomes (all expressed genes in an organism) for 1,000 insect species. This database will be used to answer questions about how insects evolved into the amazing diversity of forms we see today, and also has applications in medicine, agriculture, and conservation ecology.
The paper released this week deals mostly with the timing of insect evolution, based on a subset of 144 species. The researchers are looking for answers to some very big questions: When did insects evolve flight? When did the amazing diversity of insects develop?
Clocks and Rocks
The problem with fossils is they are rare. When you have tiny squishy animals involved, they are even less common. This new research uses time estimates based on geological evidence from fossils in combination with estimated times of divergence based on molecular evidence. This is sometimes called a molecular clock, since it uses accumulated changes in DNA to tell how much time has passed.
Looking at all the RNA in thousands of insect samples in hundreds of species of insects is a LOT of data. The biggest problem for the project was dealing with the massive amount of sequence information generated. The possible combinations were in the quadrillions. The computing capacity to crunch all that data…doesn’t exist.
This is where computer scientist and bioinformatics expert Alexandros Stamatatakis (Author #60) and his team came into play. His research group came up with a mathematical method to exclude highly unlikely combinations, and focus on likely ones. The Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies Supercomputer group, which usually works on astrophysics problems, was used to crunch the data.
Dinosaurs did not have lice, and other revelations
So what did this tremendous amount of work find? The conclusion I think will stir up the most public attention is that lice are a recent group of insects, appearing only about 53 million years ago; the time that modern birds and mammals showed up.
This date makes lice “younger” than primates. There may be a bit of a kerfuffle as previous lousy estimates based on fossils are revised. Everyone loves a good taxonomic throwdown.
But that is really a secondary finding. Other major findings of note:
- Insect ancestors (Hexapoda) likely originated during the Early Ordovician Period, about 479 million years ago.
- Insect flight emerged around 406 million years ago, around the same time plants began to really diversify on land and grow upward into forests.
- The explosive diversification of insects into most of the major orders we see today happened before the emergence of Angiosperms (flowering plants).
Just how very fast insects diversified is remarkable. The earth is ~4.5 billion years old. In just the last 10% of earth’s history, plants colonized the land. In a span of 80 million years insects formed most of the major groups still alive today and took over the skies, where they reigned supreme for millennia.
Jessica Ware of Rutgers University (Author #8) said “it was a rapid and extreme radiation in a very short period of time. It made our job really hard as scientists–that’s been one of the traditional stumbling blocks for classifying insects. With this huge amount of data we now have excellent resolution, and we can actually say something about age ranges.”
What Does It All Mean?
The best part of this research is yet to come, but where we are headed is clear. The Insect tree of life has been pruned and re-arranged constantly in the last century. It sometimes feels like taxonomists have been participating in an FBI witness-protection program, the names have been changed so often.
That will certainly continue — understanding how each group of beetles, for example, is related is a very fine level of detail. But the bigger picture is finally coming into focus. We now are on track to a real phylogeny, or map of what came first, and what relationship groups have with each other. This group is a parent, this group is a sister.
As more of the research from this group is published, we are getting closer to a phylogeny of insects that is more than just a story that we pieced together from wing patterns and bug genitals. We are truly beginning to realize what a great beetle collector once said:
Computer science and information technology degrees are closely related. A CS degree focuses on how the computer and computer programs work, while an IT degree focuses on how to make everything work together in the most efficient manner possible.
CS Degree Focus
A computer science degree focuses primarily on programming with an emphasis on the foundations of computers rather than software and hardware applications.
IT Degree Focus
An information technology degree focuses on application integration, analysis and management. This degree has a greater focus on communication and business.
CS Degree Jobs
A computer science degree is used to obtain jobs such as software engineer, research and development, interface designer and web development.
IT Degree Jobs
An information technology degree is used to obtain jobs such as network manager, web development, messaging administrator, web analyst, business analyst, project manager and technical analyst.
Future job prospects for both degree fields are accelerating at a faster than average pace thanks to the constant demand for new and more advanced technology. Because of the quick change in the field of computers, continuing education is important.
Why Online Shopping Is Better Than Conventional Shopping Technology has greatly improved our day to day living and there is no denying to that. It has literally bridged the gap while creating various options for users. Just for example, online shopping is slowly becoming the norms of people when buying products they need. So, what basically are the reasons why this is so beneficial? By shopping in the internet, you are more likely to save huge amount of time since there is no need for you to travel to and from the mall or grocery store. Aside from that, you don’t have to fall in line only to pay for the item you wish to buy. Rather, you may make use of this spare time in other more productive or useful purposes just like cleaning the house, spend quality time with your family and so forth. In addition to that, this helps you save your physical energy mainly because you do not need to do store hopping only to do comparison of prices of products that you plan to buy. Also, you don’t have to carry all the shopping bags alone because all the items that you have ordered would be shipped straight to your doorsteps.
Finding Parallels Between Options and Life
Shopping in the internet is somewhat similar to a convenience store, it is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Online stores are therefore not following the conventional mall hours in the city. What this thing mean is, you will be able to shop for any items that you want for as early in the morning or even late night in the evening without having to think if the store is open or not. As a matter of fact, you can literally buy items online even if you’re wearing your birthday suit or just wearing pajamas or anything that you are comfortable with.
A Quick Rundown of Websites
The simple fact that it gives you more options compared to brick and mortar stores, which you are only limited to what the store has to provide is another great thing about shopping online. You simply have to search for the item and several brands will come up that you can go for when it comes to online shopping. Online shopping is also an effective way to cut costs since it gets rid of the unexpected expenses that normally incurred brought impulsive buying, renting a cab, snacks or refreshments. Also, with the stiff competition of several online stores, it is pretty simple to locate several discounts and even freebies on various items. You can enjoy shopping in complete privacy especially if you like to buy items such as diet pills, undergarments, certain medications or if you just wish to avoid crowded people.
What would it be like to live on the moon or another planet? If something were to happen to the earth in the future it might become an important question. Get students to design and build their own vision of a future colony while thinking about some of the factors that will influence their designs. Kids will enjoy this fun space activity as they get to build a future city on another planet or think about living on the moon.
- Let’s think about what it would be like to live on the moon or a planet other than earth.
- Why would we need to ever do such a thing? The earth could become over populated, run out of resources, unforeseen disasters etc.
- We might also move because we want to rather than it being absolutely necessary. New technology in the future could make it not only possible but also financially attainable.
- When planning for life on the moon or a new planet what are some important things to thing about? Weather conditions, temperature, surface type, gravity, water, food, atmospheric conditions, air etc.
- Let’s design and build our own vision of a future colony on the moon or another planet that takes these things into consideration.
- Organize the equipment that the kids will use to design their future colonies. K’Nex, Duplo or Lego all work well.
- Children can work by themselves or in groups of 2.
- Get the students to think about their designs and project goals before they start building.
- Begin building and continue for around an hour or until the students have all finished.
- After the students have finished get them to walk around the room and ask other individuals or groups about their creations, what did they do differently? Why did they have this feature? Was it difficult? Etc.
- If you have time the student can also think about transport for their future colony, linking their structures together or even joining the entire classes into one giant future city!
What Is Evolution?
Biological evolution is defined as any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations. These changes may be small or large, noticeable or not so noticeable.
In order for an event to be considered an instance of evolution, changes have to occur on the genetic level of a population and be passed on from one generation to the next.
This means that the genes, or more specifically, the alleles in the population change and are passed on.
These changes are noticed in the phenotypes (expressed physical traits that can be seen) of the population.
A change on the genetic level of a population is defined as a small-scale change and is called microevolution.
Biological evolution also includes the idea that all of life is connected and can be traced back to one common ancestor. This is called macroevolution.
What Evolution Is Not
Biological evolution is not defined as simply change over time.
Many organisms experience changes over time, such as weight loss or gain. These changes are not considered instances of evolution because they are not genetic changes that can be passed on to the next generation.
Is Evolution a Theory?
Evolution is a scientific theory that was proposed by Charles Darwin. A scientific theory gives explanations and predictions for naturally occurring phenomena based on observations and experimentations. This type of theory attempts to explain how events seen in the natural world work.
The definition of a scientific theory differs from the common meaning of theory, which is defined as a guess or a supposition about a particular process.
In contrast, a good scientific theory must be testable, falsifiable, and substantiated by factual evidence.
When it comes to a scientific theory, there is no absolute proof. It’s more a case of confirming the reasonability of accepting a theory as a viable explanation for a particular event.
What Is Natural Selection?
Natural selection is the process by which biological evolutionary changes take place. Natural selection acts on populations and not individuals. It is based on the following concepts:
- Individuals in a population have different traits which can be inherited.
- These individuals produce more young than the environment can support.
- The individuals in a population that are best suited to their environment will leave more offspring, resulting in a change in the genetic makeup of a population.
The genetic variations that arise in a population happen by chance, but the process of natural selection does not. Natural selection is the result of the interactions between genetic variations in a population and the environment.
The environment determines which variations are more favorable. Individuals that possess traits that are better suited to their environment will survive to produce more offspring than other individuals. More favorable traits are thereby passed on to the population as a whole.
How Does Genetic Variation Occur in a Population?
Genetic variation occurs mainly through DNA mutation, gene flow (movement of genes from one population to another) and sexual reproduction. Due to the fact that environments are unstable, populations that are genetically variable will be able to adapt to changing situations better than those that do not contain genetic variations.
Sexual reproduction allows for genetic variations to occur through genetic recombination. Recombination occurs during meiosis and provides a way for producing new combinations of alleles on a single chromosome. Independent assortment during meiosis allows for an indefinite number of combinations of genes.
Sexual reproduction makes it possible to assemble favorable gene combinations in a population or to remove unfavorable gene combinations from a population. Populations with more favorable genetic combinations will survive in their environment and reproduce more offspring than those with less favorable genetic combinations.
Biological Evolution Versus Creation
The theory of evolution has caused controversy from the time of its introduction until today. The controversy stems from the perception that biological evolution is at odds with religion concerning the need for a divine creator. Evolutionists contend that evolution does not address the issue of whether or not God exists, but attempts to explain how natural processes work.
In doing so however, there is no escaping the fact that evolution contradicts certain aspects of some religious beliefs. For example, the evolutionary account for the existence of life and the biblical account of creation are quite different.
Evolution suggests that all life is connected and can be traced back to one common ancestor. A literal interpretation of biblical creation suggests that life was created by an all powerful, supernatural being (God).
Still others have tried to merge these two concepts by contending that evolution does not exclude the possibility of the existence of God, but merely explains the process by which God created life. This view however, still contradicts a literal interpretation of creation as presented in the bible.
In paring down the issue, a major bone of contention between the two views is the concept of macroevolution. For the most part, evolutionists and creationists agree that microevolution does occur and is visible in nature.
Macroevolution however, refers to the process of evolution that takes place on the level of species, in which one species evolves from another species. This is in stark contrast to the biblical view that God was personally involved in the formation and creation of living organisms.
For now, the evolution/creation debate continues on and it appears that the differences between these two views are not likely to be settled any time soon.
Utility trailers, for example are commonly useful for hauling pea gravel or top soil, usually do not jeopardize the insurance. They can be used without your getting any additional protection. If there is any doubt about whether or not a trailer is a home trailer or even a utility trailers, check with the insurance company.
The following case, which came up inside Texas, signifies the importance of truck insurance.
On May Being unfaithful, 1999, a collision occurred on the TX interstate about 9 miles to the south of the capital of scotland- Austin, among an automobile held and powered by Jan Brown, the plaintiff appellant, and an automobile of David Jones. The Smith vehicle was pulling a 1998-model ‘Rangerover’ two-wheel metallic trailer, 12 to 18 feet in total. It was completely enclosed together a small tested window built with Venetian blinds, as well as both a good outer front door and display door in its side. Inside, there was a bunk or cot, but no facilities for cooking or eating. The trailer was built with separate gas brakes which may be operated from within the automobile to which it absolutely was attached, as well as was explained on the Late 90s Florida enrollment card being a house sort body.
On April Thirteen, 1999, the insurer issued a car policy on his automobile.Under the heading, Exclusions, a policy contained provisions that it didn’t apply as the described fast reply vehicle was ‘used with regard to towing associated with a trailer possessed or chosen by the covered by insurance and not protected by like insurance policy in the company.
The trailer had not been ‘covered by such as insurance within the company. Pursuing the accident, he or she brought a good action against him for damages brought on by the negligent operation of his car, as well as recovered any judgment inside the sum of $5,Thousand .
The company denied liability on the floor that the policy did not protect the car during the automobile accident, since it was being used for towing a ‘home trailer’ inside meaning of the agreement.
The Determine approved this kind of contention as well as entered judgment for the company.
Other policy exclusions. The insurance policy does not use:
To damage in order to property of, rented to be able to, in charge of or even transported from the insured. The idea is that you can’t sue your self. While you are in charge of the property, it is just as though it were your own.
To trouble for an employee from the insured whilst in the employ with the insured (apart from in domestic employment).
To be able to injury to a staff member of the covered by insurance entitled to Workmen’s Settlement benefits.
For an obligation beneath any Workmen’s Payment law.
Obligations assumed from the insured through contract or agreement.
While the automobile is utilized as a general public or livery conveyance, such as a taxicab.
What is Ecology?
Ecology is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment; it seeks to understand the vital connections between plants and animals and the world around them. Ecology also provides information about the benefits of ecosystems and how we can use Earth’s resources in ways that leave the environment healthy for future generations.
Ecologists study these relationships among organisms and habitats of many different sizes, ranging from the study of microscopic bacteria growing in a fish tank, to the complex interactions between the thousands of plant, animal, and other communities found in a desert.
Ecologists also study many kinds of environments. For example, ecologists may study microbes living in the soil under your feet or animals and plants in a rainforest or the ocean.
The Role of Ecology in Our Lives
The many specialties within ecology, such as marine, vegetation, and statistical ecology, provide us with information to better understand the world around us. This information also can help us improve our environment, manage our natural resources, and protect human health. The following examples illustrate just a few of the ways that ecological knowledge has positively influenced our lives.
Improving Our Environment
Pollution From Laundry Detergents And Fertilizers
In the 1960s, ecological research identified two of the major causes of poor water quality in lakes and streams-phosphorous and nitrogen-which were found in large amounts in laundry detergents and fertilizers. Provided with this information, citizens were able to take the necessary steps to help restore their communities’ lakes and streams-many of which are once again popular for fishing and swimming.
Non-Native or Introduced Species Invasions
Some non-native species (plants, animals, microbes, and fungi not originally from a given area) threaten our forests, croplands, lakes, and other ecosystems. Introduced species, such as the kudzu vine shown below, do this by competing with plants and animals that were originally there, often damaging the environment in the process. For example, the gypsy moth, a native of Europe and Asia, wreaks havoc on great swaths of forest lands by defoliating, or eating the leaves off of trees. At first, highly toxic chemicals, which also poisoned other animals, were the only methods available to control this introduced pest. By targeting vulnerable stages in the moths’ life cycle, ecologists devised less toxic approaches to control their numbers.
Ecologists have discovered that marshes and wetlands filter toxins and other impurities from water. Communities can reap the benefit of this ecological service. Leaving some of these filtering ecosystems intact can reduce the burden on water treatment plants that have been built to perform the same service. By using natural filtering systems, we have the option to build fewer new treatment plants.
Ecologists have discovered that many plants and animals produce chemicals that protect them from predators and diseases. Some of these same chemicals have been synthesized by scientists or harvested from the organism and used to treat human diseases. For example, the Pacific Yew tree produces a substance which is used in cancer treatments. Another example is a substance found in horseshoe crabs, hemolymph, that is used in leukemia treatments.
Lyme Disease is a potentially serious bacterial infection that is transmitted to humans by certain ticks. Ecological studies have found that people are more likely to get Lyme disease when acorns are plentiful. Why? Because mice and deer, which carry the disease and the ticks, feed on acorns. More acorns usually mean more mice and deer, providing a favorable environment for large populations of ticks to flourish. Knowing the connections between acorns, deer, mice, and ticks, ecologists are able to predict the likelihood of infection and let people know when they need to be more careful when outdoors.
Natural Resource Management
Endangered Species Protection
Some of our nation’s most cherished species, such as the bald eagle and peregrine falcon, as well as countless other less familiar species, like the Virginia Big-Eared Bat and the American Burying Beetle, have either been brought back from the brink of extinction or their populations have been stabilized. These successes are the result of successful captive breeding efforts, reintroduction methods, and a greater understanding of species, in part because of ecological research.
Ecological concepts have been applied to forest management and are slowly being integrated into traditional forest science. For example, ecological studies have shown that fire plays a key role in maintaining healthy forest ecosystems in certain types of forests. This knowledge has encouraged more research to find ways to use controlled fires to prevent unpredictable and costly wildfires.
Biological control is a technique that uses the natural enemies and predators of pests to control damage to crops. It is based in part on knowing the ecology of pests, which is used to understand when and where they are the most vulnerable to their enemies. Biological control alleviates crop damage by insects, saves money, and decreases problem associated with pesticides.
Ecological research has shown that estuaries are nursery grounds for fish populations that live in coastal waters, an important reason to protect these areas. Ecological research has also identified obstacles, such as dams, that fish encounter when returning to their breeding areas. This information has been used to help design structures for fish so they can move around these obstacles to reach their breeding areas.
An ecosystem is any geographic area that includes all of the organisms and nonliving parts of their physical environment. An ecosystem can be a natural wilderness area, a suburban lake or forest, or a heavily used area such as a city. The more natural an ecosystem is, the more ecosystem services it provides. These include cleansing the water (wetlands and marshes) and air (forests), pollinating crops and other important plants (insects, birds, bats), and absorbing and detoxifying pollutants (soils and plants).
Short for biological diversity, biodiversity is the range of variation found among microorganisms, plants, fungi, and animals. Some of this variation is found within species, such as differences in shapes and colors of the flowers of a single species of plants. Biodiversity also includes the richness of species of living organisms on earth.
The environment is the surroundings of an organism including the physical and chemical environment, and other organisms with which it comes into contact. This term is most frequently used in a human context, often referring to factors affecting our quality of life.
Natural resources are living and nonliving materials in the environment that are used by humans. There are two types: renewable (wildlife, fish, timber, water) and nonrenewable (fossil fuels and minerals).
A group of individuals belonging to one species (of bacteria, fungi, plant, or animal) living in an area.
Populations of organisms of different species that interact with one another.
Where Can I Go For More Information or Assistance?
If you are interested in learning more about ecology, or would like to know what you can do to become involved, a number of resources are at your disposal. Public and university libraries offer articles, journals, and books on a range of ecological research.
Many environmental organizations have developed educational materials that focus on species and ecosystems, and offer tips on becoming involved in community activities that relate to the environment. Finally, professional ecological organizations can connect you with scientific experts in all types of ecological study, from those that specialize in wetland ecology, to those that focus on endangered species, to those whose work emphasizes city environments.
Bad Posture Is Worse Than You Thought As we pass into our later years problems associated with bad posture will start to show their face. It is hard for most people to have good posture all of the time because of the lifestyles they live. Sitting in a chair that does not support your back while staring at a computer screen all day can really take a toll on your health. When bad posture starts and continues on for years it gets harder and harder to correct. The problems that come up with bad posture come up so slowly that you do not realize your body has adapted to being slumped over and is causing damage. Back pain and musculoskeletal problems are the two most common effects of bad posture. The problems can range from mild back pain to intense back pain and degenerated joints. When you start to have problems with any part of your body then you are likely to start having troubles with other parts associated with it as well. Bad posture can result in a lot of problems you would not think about when thinking of back problems. Extreme cases of bad posture can result in internal organs not functioning properly because of being compressed together by your body. When your muscles are kept in a position for a long period of time they will want to stay in that position even after you are no longer sitting or standing the same way. For example if you have a desk job and you sit in a chair for eight hours a day then when you get up from that chair your back will want to stay in the same position you were in for the last eight hours. This is because of something called muscle memory. That means that if you use a muscle the same way over and over or keep it in the same position for a long time it is going to want to keep doing that motion or stay in that position.
If You Read One Article About Products, Read This One
This is becoming more and more of a problem as thousands of new desk jobs are being added to the work force every year. Driving a car for an extended period of time or even standing for long periods with bad posture can also create these problems.
Doing Sales The Right Way
Luckily scientist and doctors have found many ways to help with bad posture issues. Good posture can be encouraged by back supports that help straighten your back. There are chairs that have been developed to promote good posture and some even make it impossible to sit in with bad posture. Of course this sounds uncomfortable at first but like I said before muscles work on memory. Good posture will be supported by your own body once your muscles start to gain their new muscle memory.
The Gartner Executive Programs report “Reimagining IT: The 2011 CIO Agenda,” an annual survey of the technology priorities of chief information officers (CIOs), is one of many useful guides on the emerging technologies that are important for business. Although these technologies often move into the mainstream, organizations are beginning to find new ways to use emerging technologies in information technology (IT).
- The Gartner survey suggests that cloud computing could change the way CIOs manage their operations. By renting processing or storage capacity from service providers with massive external servers, CIOs eliminate the cost of purchasing and supporting additional in-house servers. Cloud computing also releases some of an organization’s existing infrastructure, freeing it for projects focused on innovation and growth, rather than day-to-day operations. Renting software that users can access online rather than installing it on their PCs or laptops reduces purchasing, support and upgrade costs. Gartner comments that CIOs can use cloud to create and realize new sources of value, as well as achieving cost-effective IT operations.
- Although cloud computing gives organizations immediate access to unlimited processing and storage power when they need to scale up their operations, the applications to fully exploit cloud have not yet caught up. Erica Naone, writing in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) “Technology Review,” lists cloud programming as one of its key emerging technologies. Currently, developers are converting existing programs to run on cloud, rather than creating new types of applications that could only work in the cloud environment, says the author.
- The launch of increasingly-powerful tablet PCs and smartphones is making mobile working a strong emerging trend. As IT managers develop enterprise-strength security solutions for these devices, organizations are allowing employees to use them to access corporate data and applications. In the MIT “Technology Review,” Nicholas Carr described how smartphones are beginning to feature 3-D imagery. Special software converts images from 2-D and allows users to view them without needing special glasses.
- Social-media networks such as Facebook and Twitter are well established in the consumer sector. These networks are now emerging as powerful business tools for applications such as marketing, customer-relationship management, collaboration, recruitment and product development.
- The sheer volume of data from social media is creating a challenge for search-engine providers and users. Data from social networks, blogs and news feeds can provide useful information for companies, helping identify and monitor trends and attitudes. The problem is how to categorize and rank that information while it remains fresh and useful. Developers are working on real-time search techniques to overcome that challenge and make social media useful for research.
- The search for greater business insight from the vast amount of available data is generating interest in analytics, which consultancy firm Accenture lists as one of its key emerging technologies. Cloud computing gives organizations the ability to collect, store and distribute greater volumes of data. Using analytics will enable organizations to differentiate themselves by creating more value from that data. Analytics help organizations build a more detailed understanding of customer needs, enabling them to develop customer-focused solutions and improve the precision of marketing communications. That ability can accelerate revenue growth and improve profitability.
Learning More About Radiology When we talk about Radiology, this is primarily a term used in indicating the process of using radiation for purposes of imaging. Ultrasound, radiant dye, X-rays and MRIs are few of the processes included in Radiology. Such processes mentioned make an image of the inner aspect of the human body through using radiant energy. One good area of specialization in the field of medicine is Radiology. It will require sufficient amount of training, knowledge and skills in operating Radiology tools and equipment. These things are also important so that results from such tests can be interpreted. Radiology experts need to be the ones to know the type, position and significance of different amounts of issues in the medical field or in the health of a person In spite of the fact that doctors have already seen and examined a client., such form of practice is being used in providing better understanding of any form of complaints in the medical field. Such methods mentioned, can appropriately identify the issues experienced by the patient when casino spiele it comes to his or her health which can include brain tumors, fracture and others.
Why Records Aren”t As Bad As You Think
So as to assist the healthcare facilities in properly diagnosing patients, they are already hiring the expertise and skills of Radiology professionals to be able to assist them on site. Unless the healthcare facility has an onboard expert in Radiology who can interpret results of patients undergoing such processes, then results must be sent out to experts for proper interpretation.
The Beginner”s Guide to Solutions
One duty of the Radiology expert is to acquire the best images possible and after which, create a review of those results. This is done since Radiology has a very important role played when it comes to patient diagnosis. When there would be mistakes made at this point, then misdiagnosis could likely occur which could be detrimental to the patient. Especially when patients acquire traumatic injuries, it is quite possible for them to experience some or if not, excruciating pain when they undergo Radiology imaging. It is of great importance that interpersonal skills as well as an outstanding bedside attitude should be possessed by the experts in the field of Radiology due to this fact. Especially when it comes to the procedure which have to be undergone by the patient, these people will most likely experience the need for comfort. Proper explanation must be given to the patients in order to make sure that they are calm all throughout the Radiology exam. It is extremely important for the experts in Radiology to look at the medical history of patients as well as to consider the possibilities of any link with the client”s current health condition or any abnormalities manifested by the patient.
Cladoselache (Greek for “branch-toothed shark”); pronounced CLAY-doe-SELL-ah-kee
Late Devonian (370 million years ago)
Size and Weight:
About 6 feet long and 25-50 pounds
Slender build; lack of scales or claspers
Cladoselache is one of those prehistoric sharks that’s more famous for what it didn’t have than for what it did.
Specifically, this Devonian shark was almost completely devoid of scales, except on specific parts of its body, and it also lacked the “claspers” that the vast majority of sharks (both prehistoric and modern) use to impregnate females. As you may have guessed, paleontologists are still trying to puzzle out exactly how Cladoselache reproduced!
Another odd thing about Cladoselache was its teeth–which weren’t sharp and tearing like those of most sharks, but smooth and blunt, an indication that this creature swallowed fish whole after grasping them in its muscular jaws. Unlike most sharks of the Devonian period, Cladoselache has yielded some exceptionally well-preserved fossils (many of them unearthed from a geological deposit near Cleveland), some of which bear imprints of recent meals as well as internal organs.
An egg sinks to the bottom if you drop it into a glass of ordinary drinking water but what happens if you add salt? The results are very interesting and can teach you some fun facts about density.
What you’ll need:
- One egg
- A tall drinking glass
- Pour water into the glass until it is about half full.
- Stir in lots of salt (about 6 tablespoons).
- Carefully pour in plain water until the glass is nearly full (be careful to not disturb or mix the salty water with the plain water).
- Gently lower the egg into the water and watch what happens.
Salt water is denser than ordinary tap water, the denser the liquid the easier it is for an object to float in it. When you lower the egg into the liquid it drops through the normal tap water until it reaches the salty water, at this point the water is dense enough for the egg to float. If you were careful when you added the tap water to the salt water, they will not have mixed, enabling the egg to amazingly float in the middle of the glass.
There is nothing better than a bit of mythbusting (which accounts for the popularity of the television program of the same name), so here we are again, presenting you with a new list of terribly common misconceptions and myths – this time about science.
The Myth: Evolution causes something to go from “lower” to “higher”
While it is a fact that natural selection weeds out unhealthy genes from the gene pool, there are many cases where an imperfect organism has survived. Some examples of this are fungi, sharks, crayfish, and mosses – these have all remained essentially the same over a great period of time. These organisms are all sufficiently adapted to their environment to survive without improvement.
Other taxa have changed a lot, but not necessarily for the better. Some creatures have had their environments changed and their adaptations may not be as well suited to their new situation. Fitness is linked to their environment, not to progress. [Source]
The Myth: When exposed to the vacuum of space, the human body pops
This myth is the result of science fiction movies which use it to add excitement or drama to the plot. In fact, a human can survive for 15 – 30 seconds in outer space as long as they breathe out before the exposure (this prevents the lungs from bursting and sending air into the bloodstream). After 15 or so seconds, the lack of oxygen causes unconsciousness which eventually leads to death by asphyxiation.
The Myth: Polaris is the brightest star in the northern hemisphere night sky
Sirius is actually brighter with a magnitude of ?1.47 compared to Polaris’ 1.97 (the lower the number the brighter the star). The importance of Polaris is that its position in the sky marks North – and for that reason it is also called the “North Star”. Polaris is the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor and, interestingly, is only the current North Star as pole stars change over time because stars exhibit a slow continuous drift with respect to the Earth’s axis.
The Myth: Food that drops on the floor is safe to eat if you pick it up within five seconds
This is utter bunkum which should be obvious to most readers. If there are germs on the floor and the food lands on them, they will immediately stick to the food. Having said that, eating germs and dirt is not always a bad thing as it helps us to develop a robust immune system. I prefer to have a “how-tasty-is-it” rule: if it is something really tasty, it can sit there for ten minutes for all I care – I will still eat it.
The Myth: There is a dark side of the moon
Actually – every part of the moon is illuminated at sometime by the sun. This misconception has come about because there is a side of the moon which is never visible to the earth. This is due to tidal locking; this is due to the fact that Earth’s gravitational pull on the moon is so immense that it can only show one face to us. Wikipedia puts it rather smartly thus: “Tidal locking occurs when the gravitational gradient makes one side of an astronomical body always face another; for example, one side of the Earth’s Moon always faces the Earth. A tidally locked body takes just as long to rotate around its own axis as it does to revolve around its partner. This synchronous rotation causes one hemisphere constantly to face the partner body.”
The Myth: Brain cells can’t regenerate – if you kill a brain cell, it is never replaced
The reason for this myth being so common is that it was believed and taught by the science community for a very long time. But in 1998, scientists at the Sweden and the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California discovered that brain cells in mature humans can regenerate. It had previously been long believed that complex brains would be severely disrupted by new cell growth, but the study found that the memory and learning center of the brain can create new cells – giving hope for an eventual cure for illnesses like Alzheimer’s.
The Myth: A penny dropped from a very high building can kill a pedestrian below
This myth is so common it has even become a bit of a cliche in movies. The idea is that if you drop a penny from the top of a tall building (such as the Empire State Building) – it will pick up enough speed to kill a person if it lands on them on the ground. But the fact is, the aerodynamics of a penny are not sufficient to make it dangerous. What would happen in reality is that the person who gets hit would feel a sting – but they would certainly survive the impact.
3. Friction Heat
The Myth: Meteors are heated by friction when entering the atmosphere
When a meteoroid enters the atmosphere of the earth (becoming a meteor), it is actually the speed compressing the air in front of the object that causes it to heat up. It is the pressure on the air that generates a heat intense enough to make the rock so hot that is glows brilliantly for our viewing pleasure (if we are lucky enough to be looking in the sky at the right time). We should also dispel the myth about meteors being hot when they hit the earth – becoming meteorites. Meteorites are almost always cold when they hit – and in fact they are often found covered in frost. This is because they are so cold from their journey through space that the entry heat is not sufficient to do more than burn off the outer layers.
The Myth: Lightning never strikes the same place twice
Next time you see lightning strike and you consider running to the spot to protect yourself from the next bolt, remember this item! Lightning does strike the same place twice – in fact it is very common. Lightning obviously favors certain areas such as high trees or buildings. In a large field, the tallest object is likely to be struck multiple times until the lightning moves sufficiently far away to find a new target. The Empire State Building gets struck around 25 times a year.
The Myth: There is no gravity in space
In fact, there is gravity in space – a lot of it. The reason that astronauts appear to be weightless because they are orbiting the earth. They are falling towards the earth but moving sufficiently sideways to miss it. So they are basically always falling but never landing. Gravity exists in virtually all areas of space. When a shuttle reaches orbit height (around 250 miles above the earth), gravity is reduced by only 10%.
Advantages Of Choosing A Medical Spa People who are search for a really reliable answer to their various cosmetic problems can get to use the services of a medical spa, they truly have the correct experienced clinical experts and various well trained professionals that can do this kind of service. These services that most of these medical spas offer are really cost effective, and most of them are really amazing services where people can truly rely in trying to improve their aesthetic looks and also get to assist them with certain problems. If people really want a life that is healthy and also obtain the right cosmetic solutions these medical spas can provide that, people can easily achieve their life goals in a fast and also very effective manner. These different medical spas have various programs and also have truly skilled medical professionals that people can get to try and go to and relax, they can let these professionals do the work in giving their clients a great spa experience. These various medical spas truly have the correct facilities and also equipments in providing their clients great spa experience in a competitive price, they can truly improve the skin of their clients drastically. If people are also looking for detoxification services, people can also get to rely on these medical spas to offer them a large number of choices where they have different packages that they can choose from these medical spas. These different medical spas can also get to offer their various clients with important weight loss service and also skin care services, but they can offer their clients detoxification of their body other than revitalizing their skin in order to live a healthy life.
Case Study: My Experience With Companies
These medical spas can truly assist people to get to stop the bad effects of toxins that are harmful to the mental and also the physical health of their very own body, and people can also get to spend quality time with their own self. This can truly help people to get to try and handle different kinds of stress and also problems in life in a truly effective manner, people can easily be comfortable and also get to halt the harmful effects of stress and certain problems that are in their own life.
A Quick Overlook of Spas – Your Cheatsheet
These medical spas can offer advanced face lifts and also skin care treatments from these medical spas, they are really designed to handle different kinds of problems like wrinkles and also the aging effects to the skin of their clients. People can try and get to use the internet in looking for a spa that can help them in their various cosmetic problems in their own body, they can use search engines and other websites.
What is your meaning of money related achievement? For a large portion of us it implies distinctive things. What’s more, for a great many people, it is an ambiguous definition without a set number or wanted result. A great many people pronounce that they need to be “rich” or have enough cash with the goal that they don’t need to work.
All things considered, what is that number? What is rich to you? What steps have you laid out to achieve this objective? Your meaning of money related achievement ought to be an individual definition, not some non specific definition that somebody made when all is said in done. In any case, on the off chance that you can’t think about one naturally, a bland definition may be a decent place to begin. That being said, here is my own definition that my wife and I settled on:
Budgetary achievement – the capacity to have the capacity to pay bills without stress, be free of obligation, help other people with our time and monetary assets, spare our youngsters’ school educational cost/trust stores spared in the measures of (sums here), and are on track with our investment funds plan to have spared the cash we need to have by (our date here).
Really extensive definition huh? All things considered, a standout amongst the most critical things for being an accomplishment in anything is clarity. On the off chance that you are single, you must be clear in respect to what it is you are attempting to finish for yourself. In the event that you are hitched, you should both be sure about what it is you need together, and additionally independently, and set up a course of action together to start, gage, and perform your objectives.
Step 1 – Establish Clearly Defined Financial Goals
With the goal you should achieve a destination; you must have the capacity to see where you are going. Have you ever taken a stab at swimming through mud? It would be difficult to do. Furthermore, you wouldn’t have the capacity to see where you are going and the dissatisfaction would most likely bring down your determination and you would surrender. On the off chance that you don’t have monetary objectives set, this is precisely what you are doing.
Why do this on the off chance that you don’t need to? Plainly Defined in Rutgers online social work masters program for Financial Goals permit you to see where you are, the place you are going, and give you an approach to keep tabs on your development. Envision swimming free waters off the shore of Bermuda – ready to see the submerged life and go precisely where you need to go. You can see the threats and maintain a strategic distance from them. On the off chance that you get off base, you can see where you originated from and change your heading. Objectives in any piece of your life give you this force.
The most effective method to Set Financial Goals – Short Term
So how would you go about setting money related objectives? I’m happy you inquired! Setting transient objectives is imperative in light of the fact that they help you accomplish you’re long haul objectives. You can set transient objectives that look something like this:
I will spare $600 by June 2005, putting so as to beg now, away $100 a month. I will have it naturally drafted.
I will drink just 1 pop a day beginning today, rather than three, and recovery the distinction in a Money Market account with (Name of Company) from (today’s date) to (1 year from today’s date).
I will spare $5000 this year in my Mutual Fund account with (Name of Company) by having $208.50 drafted bi-week by week from my pay.
These fleeting objectives answer the inquiries who, what, when, where, and how. Do your objectives do this? It might be time to patch up. I can’t push enough the significance of clarity. Without clarity, your activity will be more so inaction than advancement.
Step by step instructions to Set Financial Goals – Long Term
For long haul objectives, you need to be pretty much as clear. Point of fact, you’re long haul objectives will take after the same organization, however will have dates that are further later on. Case in point:
I will have spared $500,000 by my 55th birthday by putting aside ($ set number of dollars) for (set number of years) by having it consequently drafted into a Roth IRA with (Name of Company).
On September fifth, 2020 I will have spared ($ set number) for my youngster’s educational cost/trust reserve by having ($ set number of dollars) drafted from my paycheck bi-week after week.
The transient objectives that my wife and I have set placed us in a state of harmony with our long haul objectives and our definition. The best part about the majority of this is – if our reasoning changes about our tentative arrangements, we can make modification and proceed with the course.
I am certain that the first piece of this arrangement is useful to you, or has at any rate returned you on track to your monetary objective. Stay tuned for 3 Steps to Personal Financial Success
Information On Laser Liposuction If you want to remove excess fat from your body then you need to undergo a laser liposuction procedure to help you do so. It basically involves using a laser device that is directed to the area of your body containing the fat so that it slowly gets melted within your body. This is how the mechanism of this brilliant new procedure is done and the reason why is has been so widely used by many people nowadays. This procedure makes use of a special solution that allows it to remove fat in the most effective manner. When you have this solution that is present when performing modern process of fat removal, there is no need for you to go under the knife at all. This procedure is really a lot more efficient than the traditional procedure and that is why so many people are willing to try it out for themselves. However, you need to be extra careful when considering a professional to perform the procedure for you. This article is meant to show you all the benefits this new and modern procedure can bring as well as the guidelines in choosing the right professional for the job to ensure that there will be nothing but the best results in your venture. When it comes to these procedures, there is basically nothing better than a persona feedback from people who have undergone the procedure themselves, that is why if you know someone who has, don’t hesitate to ask that person all of the details. When this option is not something you can rely on then there is always the choice of looking online because that is the place where you will have an unlimited amount of choices and options as long as you are careful with the professionals you are considering. Make sure to read all the information found in the site so you can evaluate what kind of performance a certain medical group can do for you in terms of undergoing this procedure. If you read all the comments and feedbacks found on the site then you may be able to find some useful information to help you with your decision. Regardless of whether they are using machines or not, you need to be able to entrust the job to professionals who are skilled and experienced with this type of procedure because you can’t afford for anything to go wrong. Don’t forget to check background information about the doctors of the group as well so that you can fully assess what they are capable of. If you want things to turn out in the best way then all you have to do is follow the necessary tips found on this article. Make wise decisions that will change your life but at the same time won’t compromise your health in any way.
Your brain is the most complex part of your body, it performs a large number of amazing calculations every second, taking in information from the outside world in the form of senses and allowing you to quickly respond to various situations. Use this senses lesson plan to show students some fun brain activities and teach them more about brain functions such as memory, taste, sight and touch.
It is said that as far back as 10000 years ago people had a strong awareness of the importance of the head and brain.
- The word ‘brain’ originated from the ancient Egyptians.
- Early philosophers such as Socrates and Aristotle wrote and made theories regarding the human brain although Aristotle also believed that the heart played a crucial role in human intelligence.
- The human brain interprets the world around us in many different ways. These processes are researched in the study of neuroscience.
- Can you name some of the ways that humans process information from the world around us? Memory, reflexes, senses etc.
- If you have access to old human and animal skulls they are great for giving a physical perspective. Ask the students for any differences or similarities they notice between them. Good posters and images are also useful, you explain what scientists already know about the human skull and brain.
Physical differences in the brain of different species go much deeper than the obvious size and shape aspects, feel free to discuss more about this, the senses and brain functions in general.
- Another way that our brains make assumptions is through optical illusions. Our brain tries to fill in the gaps, especially as we have been taught to use specific shapes and angles to tell us about size. Your brain is always looking for blank spaces and filling them with information. Our brains are always trying to recognise things in our environment and create meaning out of them. It is part of our survival instinct. Sometimes your brain leaps to the wrong conclusion and you get a surprise. Magicians and illusionists are experts at using this to their advantage.
- Show the students a colored jellybean, red for example. They have to guess what flavour it might be. After they have guessed, give them all one of these jellybeans and see if they were right. Talk to them about how our brain sometimes makes assumptions about certain things that we have a memory of.
- Test the short term memory of the students. Show them a number of different objects and tell them to remember as many as possible. They have only one minute to look at them. Hide the objects after one minute has passed. Let the kids write down as many things as they can remember on a sheet of paper. Can they remember all of the items? Are there any that were forgotten by everyone? What could they do to improve their memory?
What areas of our bodies are most sensitive to touch? Our Hands? Feet? Fingers?
- Bend a paper clip into the shape of a U with the tips about 2 cm apart. Make sure the tips of the U are evenly aligned with each other.
- Lightly touch the two ends of the paper clip on the back of your partners hand. Your partner should not be looking as you do this. Do not press to hard!
- Try and make sure that both tips touch the skin at the same time. Ask your partner if they felt one or two pressure points.
- If your partner felt one point, spread the tips of the clip a bit further apart, then touch the back of your partners hand again. If your partner felt two points, push the tips a bit closer together and test again.
- Measure the distance at which your partner can feel two points.
- Now try the same thing on different parts of the body and record the distances.
The receptors in our skin are not distributed in a uniform way around our body. Some places, such as our finger and lips, have more touch receptors than other parts of our body, such as our backs. That is one reason why we are more sensitive to touch on our fingers and face than on our backs.
Rats breed so quickly that in just 18 months, 2 rats could have created over 1 million relatives.
The blue whale can produce the loudest sound of any animal. At 188 decibels, the noise can be detected over 800 kilometres away.
Horses and cows sleep while standing up.
Giant Arctic jellyfish have tentacles that can reach over 36 metres in length.
Locusts have leg muscles that are about 1000 times more powerful than an equal weight of human muscle.
Hummingbirds are so agile and have such good control that they can fly backwards.
Instead of bones, sharks have a skeleton made from cartilage.
Insects such as bees, mosquitoes and cicadas make noise by rapidly moving their wings.
The horn of a rhinoceros is made from compacted hair rather than bone or another substance.
Sharks lay the biggest eggs in the world.
Even when a snake has its eyes closed, it can still see through its eyelids.
Unlike humans, sheep have four stomachs, each one helps them digest the food they eat.
Despite the white, fluffy appearance of Polar Bears fur (which is transparent), it actually has black skin.
As well as being a famous Looney Tunes character, the Tasmanian Devil is a real animal that is only found in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. It is the largest carnivorous marsupial in the world.
The average housefly only lives for 2 or 3 weeks.
Mosquitoes can be annoying insects but did you know that it’s only the female mosquito that actually bites humans.
Cats use their whiskers to check whether a space is too small for them to fit through or not.
In a wood fire, the visible flames are not due to combustion of the wood itself, but rather of the gases released by its pyrolysis; whereas the flame-less burning of embers is the combustion of the solid residue (charcoal) left behind by it.
Although the basic concepts of the process have been validated, the performance data for an emerging technology have not been evaluated according to methods approved by EPA and adhering to EPA quality assurance/quality control standards.
Waste is converted to a fuel by heating the waste which burns just as coal or wood does under the right controlled conditions. Whereas incineration fully converts the input waste into energy and ash, these processes limit the conversion so that combustion does not take place directly.
Waste Plastic under pressure and catalytic cracking produces fuel and can be used as a fuel source. Under certain temperature conditions the plastic macromolecular chains are broken down into small molecular chains (simple hydrocarbon compounds) and those small molecular compounds contain C4 to C20, this compound is a component of petrol, coal oil, and diesel.
Anhydrous pyrolysis can also be used to produce liquid fuel similar to diesel from solid biomass.
Fast pyrolysis occurs in a time of a few seconds or less. Therefore, not only chemical reaction kinetics but also heat and mass transfer processes, as well as phase transition phenomena, play important roles. Fast pyrolysis is a process in which organic materials are rapidly heated to 450 – 600 degrees C in absence of air. Under these conditions, organic vapors, permanent gases and charcoal are produced.
Researchers at Virginia Tech have identified pyrolysis as a potential technology for disposing of poultry litter. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop transportable pyrolysis units to process the waste from poultry growers within one locality, thus reducing transportation cost. Researchers believe that the char, an inert and highly porous material, plays a key role in helping soil retain water and nutrients, and in sustaining microorganisms that maintain soil fertility. Researchers have obtained from wood – initially beech and then coniferous species – oils with almost ideal characteristics. Straw, which has a lower energy yield – 50% as opposed to 70% for wood – is also due to be analysed in the near future.
Bill Gates’ personal investment vehicle, is reportedly backing Sapphire Energy, a start up working towards a commercial-scale facility to produce oil from algae, but we think he would do well to look at gasification and pyrolysis as his energy technology because there are so many possibilities in this technology.
Gasification technology also offers the possibility to create a new domestic supply of gas. It works by converting the hydrocarbons in coal, biomass and waste petroleum products into a gas called “syngas” that can be used in place of natural gas to generate power, or used in manufacturing as fuel or feedstock. Gasification avoids many problems which can occur in biogas digesters, and is also able to process lignin and cellulose, which are hard to ferment.
Part of the reason so many ordinary people doubt the evolutionary link between feathered dinosaurs and birds is because when they think of the word “dinosaur,” they picture enormous beasts like Brachiosaurus and Tyrannosaurus Rex, and when they think of the word “bird,” they picture harmless, rodent-sized pigeons and robins (and perhaps the occasional eagle or penguin). See a gallery of feathered dinosaur pictures
Closer to the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, though, the visual referents are a lot different. For decades, paleontologists have been digging up small, birdlike theropods (the same family of two-legged dinosaurs that includes tyrannosaurs and raptors) bearing unmistakable evidence of feathers, wishbones, and other bits of avian anatomy. Unlike larger dinosaurs, these smaller theropods tend to be unusually well-preserved, and many such fossils have been found completely intact (which is more than can be said for the average sauropod).
Feathered Dinosaurs, Birds and Evolution
What do these fossils tell us about the evolution of prehistoric birds from dinosaurs? Well, for starters, it’s impossible to pin down a single “missing link” between these two types of animals. For a while, scientists believed the 150-million-year-old Archaeopteryx was the indisputable transitional form, but it’s still not clear if this was a true bird (as some experts claim) or a very small, and not very aerodynamic, theropod dinosaur.
(In fact, a new study claims that the feathers of Archaeopteryx weren’t strong enough to sustain extended bursts of flight.)
The problem is, the subsequent discovery of other small, feathered dinosaurs that lived at the same time as Archaeopteryx–such as Epidendrosaurus, Pedopenna and Xiaotingia–has muddied the picture considerably, and there’s no ruling out the possibility that future paleontologists will unearth dino-birds from as far back as the Triassic period. In addition, it’s far from clear that all these feathered theropods were closely related: evolution has a way of repeating its jokes, and feathers (and wishbones) may well have evolved multiple times.
To show how tricky this issue is, here’s the standard picture of bird evolution: small, running theropods (for the sake of argument, let’s say raptors) evolved feathers as a way of keeping warm and attracting mates. As these feathers grew larger and more ornate, they provided an unexpected bonus: a split-second of extra “lift” when their owner pounced on prey or ran away from larger predators. Multiply this scenario by countless generations, and you have a solid theory for the origin of avian flight.
Feathered Dinosaurs up in Trees
There are, however, a few complications with this story. Although the “ground up” theory of bird evolution is widely accepted by paleontologists, we have strong evidence that feathered dinosaurs like Scansoriopteryx and Microraptor spent most of their lives in trees. In addition, Microraptor appears to have had wings on both its front and back limbs–making it more like a gliding squirrel than a modern bird. Did feathered flight begin when these tree-dwelling dinosaurs’ young accidentally fell out of the perch?
In any event, how do we know that these feathered dinosaurs led an arboreal (tree-dwelling) lifestyle? Paleontologists often abstract prehistoric behavior from the lifestyles of similarly proportioned modern creatures. For example, the long middle fingers of Epidendrosaurus look uncannily like the claws of some South American lemurs, whose sole function is to pry insects out of tree bark!
Too Many Feathered Dinosaurs
Another problem with tracing the exact course of dinosaur-bird evolution is that so many likely ancestors technically belonged to different families. While all feathered dinosaurs that we know of were true theropods, some are classified as raptors, some as oviraptors, some as troodonts, some as ornithomimids and some as, well, your guess is as good as the experts’ (it’s even possible that juvenile tyrannosaurs had a fine feather coating). The key thing is, all these creatures resembled each other more closely than they resembled the typical genera in their extended families (for example, Sinornithosaurus looks a lot more like the troodont Sinovenator than it does its fellow raptor Deinonychus).
Further complicating matters, the behavior of small, feathered dinosaurs seems to have been remarkably adaptable. Paleontologists have yet to discover any meat-eating ornithopods (these dinosaurs were strictly vegetarian), but at least two feathered “therizinosaur” theropods–Incisivosaurus and Falcarius–appear to have been plant eaters, and the large, ostrich-like ornithomimids were probably omnivorous.
The Feathered Dinosaurs of Liaoning
Every now and then, paleontologists stumble across a fossil treasure trove that forever changes the public’s perception of dinosaurs. Such was the case in the early 1990’s, when researchers uncovered rich fossil deposits in Liaoning, a northeastern province of China. All of the fossils date from about 130 million years ago, making Liaoning a spectacular window into the early Cretaceous period.
Although Liaoning has yielded fossilized insects, fish and mammals, among other creatures, it has become best known for its small, feathered dinosaurs. To date, paleontologists have uncovered dozens of exceptionally well-preserved fossils of feathered theropods, accounting for over a dozen separate genera. (You can often recognize a Liaoning dino-bird from its name; witness the “sino,” meaning “Chinese,” in Sinornithosaurus, Sinosauropteryx and Sinovenator.)
Since Liaoning’s fossil deposits represent a mere snapshot in the long history of dinosaurs, their discovery has raised the possibility that more dinosaurs were feathered than scientists have ever dreamed–and that the evolution of dinosaurs into birds was not a one-time, linear process. In fact, it’s very possible that dinosaurs evolved into what we would recognize as “birds” numerous times over the course of a hundred million years–with only one branch surviving into the modern era and yielding those familiar pigeons, sparrows, penguins and eagles.
The advances technologies such as ISDN, Frame Relay, ATM and SDH/SONET are being integrated for the data and voice traffic being transmitted over the internet. In olden days the telephone lines used carried voice traffic in the form of analog and were know as Plain Old Telephone System (POTS), but at present the telephones and the computers use digital technology for the voice and data traffic. Devices like modems are being used to convert analog into digital and vice versa. As more and more peoples are using internet the data and voice traffic is being transmitted over the same line. In my report I will focus on some of the modern technologies for voice and data traffic and the devices that are being used for the purpose in the Wide Area Network. At present the most emerging technology being used in the Wan is VOIP. It transmits voice over the internet using the packets. The users can transmit audio and video over a data network. The analog signal is converted into digital using the modem. The modem converts analog signals into small digital packets to be transmitted over the network. At the receiver end the data is demodulated and the file is converted into an AVG file. This procedure is being used in VOIP, Video conferencing and streaming of audio and video clips on the internet. With this the WAN technologies are emerging and many WAN devices are being used.
WIDE AREA NETWORKS:
Several Local Area Network connected is know as Wide Area Network. This helps in transmitting data to longer distances using a single network. Better example for this would be different branches of a company around the world are interconnected using the Wide Area Network. The branches use LAN in the branch and WAN between different branches which helps the business to grow at a faster pace and with security.
The various WAN devices available in the market are being manufactured on the lines of reliability and security of the network. Some of them are
In the network a router helps to connect one or more than one computers. Normally for home users they are helpful in taking a single broadband connection and spreading
it to other computers. Backbone of an internet is usually by industrial routers which are used in the telecom industry. Each router has a table configured to make connections which lead to a group of IP addresses. The routing table also have the rules to handle different types of traffic.
A switch is every so often called a ‘intelligent hub’, and at the present that they are no longer considerably more costly than the hubs they have roughly replaced them completely. A switch works alike as a hub, with the aim of to connect devices to let them to work as a single segment. However, it does not repeatedly transmit traffic to each and every port. Whenever a frame of data enters into the switch, it save the physical address (MAC address) and the port it come from in its MAC address table. Then it checks the target MAC address in the table, and if it recognises it sends the frame to the suitable port. If the address is not the table, or address is a broadcast address (intended for every machine on the local network), then it do the equivalent as a hub and transmits the frame throughout every port apart from the originating port.
A hub is a tool for connecting various Ethernet devices (usually PCs) to outline a single segment – a part of a network that is unconnected from other parts of the network. It has several ports throughout which devices are joined, and while it receives data it send it out over through every port apart from the one it come in through. Initially Ethernet networks use coaxial cables. Each computer was fixed with a transceiver, which is connected straight into a long part of coaxial cable – a bus. This means that the traffic flowing on the network is visible to every one on the network.
The short form for modulator and demodulator is Modem. It converts digital frequencies of the computer in to analog to make it transmit over the telephone or cable lines. At the receiver end the modem successfully demodulates the analog into digital and gives it to the computer to carry out appropriate functions.
The replacement for old age analog technology is the ISDN. It was implemented to create a more reliable and faster transport mechanism. It is cheaper than a leased line and it takes seconds to install it. The standard ISDN, Broadband ISDN is the version most people are aware of which is the ATM.
The end equipment protocol is defined by the ITU I and the switch/network protocol is defined by the ITU Q series.
Structure of ISDN
The protocol model for ISDN is represented in the following diagram:
Figure: Structure of ISDN
With the beginning of PCM tools in the 1960s, communications networks are steadily transformed to digital technology above the next few years (Werner, Fundamentals and SONET testing). To deal with the stipulate for ever high bit rates, a multiplex hierarchy called the plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) evolve. The bit rates begin with the fundamental multiplex rate of 3 Mbit/s with additional stages of 8, 34 and 140 Mbit/s. The 1980s see a start in the growth of the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH), with the purpose to eliminate the disadvantage inbuilt in PDH. SDH bring the subsequent advantages to network provider.
- High transmission rates
Transmission rates of up and about 10 Gbit/s can be achieve in current SDH systems.
- Simplified add and drop function
When compared to the old PDH system, it is a lot easier to take out and insert low-bit rate channels on or after or into the high-speed bit streams in SDH.
Modern SDH networks consist of various repeated back-up and repair mechanism to deal with system faults.
- Future platform for advanced services.
At present, SDH is the suitable platform for the advanced services ranging from ISDN, POTS through to data communications (LAN, WAN).
SDH makes it easy to install or set up new gateways in between various network providers and SONET systems.
Figure: SDH Layer Model
Difference between SDH and SONET:
SDH is the synchronous digital hierarchy that is use every where apart from in the USA, Canada and Japan. SONET (Synchronous optical network) is the American counterpart of SDH. Designs of this transmission technology in America begin as far back as 1985. The SONET basic bit rate is 51.48 Mbit/s and is named STS-1 (synchronous transport signal). If the bit rate is transmit above an optical cable system, the signal is named as OC-1 (optical container)
Table: Levels in Hierarchy
Public Data Network:
The people around the world use public network to send and receive data which is also know as internet. If a user is making a call using the internet then its priority will be high because the user is using an expensive technology. If its security and reliability is ignored then more and more private networks will be formed by different companies which will lead to congestion of the network The common carrier subscriptions which own telecom services are known as public networks. It supports the transmission of voice traffic over the internet using the modems through the telephone sockets and gain automated access to users around the world. In this there is no wastage of bandwidth as the calls are being made over the internet and this will be a reliable and suitable for small companies
ATM is the short form for Asynchronous Transfer Mode. Circuit switching usually requires that packets are placed into position in recurring frames, i.e. synchronous, in time, in step according to use and/or network clocks. Asynchronous transmission allow cells to be placed anywhere in the data stream. ATM at present has speeds of 155Mbps (OC-3 ports), 622Mbps (OC-12 ports), 1.2 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps. Since the cells are rigid in length (53 octets, or bytes) quite than variable such as an Ethernet frame, they can be switch in hardware to a certain extent than software and these accounts for the high speeds that can be attain than Ethernet, Token Ring and FDDI.
ATM is very lithe and allow the transmission of a variety of media type such as voice, video, data files etc. all demanding the network in changed ways, video, for example can be extremely subject to a sudden slowdown in network routine as altering speed video is very disturbing. ATM allows committed circuits with certain bandwidths and differing needs to be set up at the same time (http://www.rhyshaden.com/atm.htm). Quality of Service (QoS) can be locate up and is certain at connection stage by means of parameter such as delay, delay jitter and error rate base on the function and the position of the network at the moment of connection. Two priority for traffic are defined; High priority and Low priority. Low priority traffic force is leftover if around are switch congestion trouble. Particularly voice and video traffics include to be transferred by means of previous methods such as MPLS over ATM and IP over ATM, where QoS maintain advantages of the ATM are subjugated in exacting (Cemal Kocak, et.al, 2007). There is no joint media or conflict based protocols in ATM, each machine has 155Mbps all to itself. In ATM you be able to multiplex ‘cell streams’ so as to may be for totally different application, the structure works in ‘connection oriented’ form thereby guarantee cell sequencing for those cells in a exacting connection.
It is developed by the values or technology base on ISDN (Piliouras, 2005). The communication is among end users by following the interface of public network and private network (Taylor, 2000). It handles high traffic on internet at high speeds and on the whole handles data networking issue at high speed by functioning on following principles:
Solution for errors like congestion occurs, discarding frames and means to improve errors at end user method. It works on applications of data and is based on packet switching (Smith, 1996). The data is distributed into frames of variable length similar as in packet switching, which is sent to target through frame relay networks. The difference between frame relay and packet switching is that frame relay is second layer protocol of OSI where as packet switching is third layer protocol but frame relay is quite straightforward compared to packet switching linking locations all the way through access circuit to networks (Green, 2000). Carrier information rate (CIR) is the element which is used to charge and it guarantees the transporting the carrier through, Access Circuit cost is classify by LEC and port speed which is a manifold of 64 Kbps.
The idea of information backdrop, issue concerning technology, in force scenarios and advance to protocols management for WAN technologies and a lot of unresolved promotion and technological questions concerning coexist of conventional communications of voice. The WAN technology should further develop earlier than the considerable possible acceptance and also customer service and billing methods. Additional determine execution of WAN and efficient structure of billing method for calls using VOIP system and also sophisticated procedures. Advancement or adoption of WAN technologies will in the end resolve services, price efficiency and Quality of Service. The trouble for session timeout, issue of reliability and solution of feeble slow link have to be resolve. The mixing of data protection system is necessary for errors correction and dependable to run the arbitrary data or voice traffic over the internet internet.
Cathrine Paquet, 2001, “Building Cisco Remote Access Networks” Cisco Press CompTia, Que Publishing.
Cemal Kocak, et.al, MPLS over ATM and IP over ATM methods for multimedia applications, Computer Standards & Interfaces 31 (2009), pp 153–160, 2007.
Dennis & Fitzgerald, 2005, “Business Data Communications Networking“, John Wiley & Sons.
Gupta C P, 2006, “Data Communications and Computer Networks“, India, Prentice Hall of India.
Huggins D, Ferguson B, 2002, “Designing a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory and Network Infrastructure“, Que Publishing.
Compared to dinosaurs, mammoths and saber-toothed cats, fish evolution may not seem all that interesting–until you realize that if it weren’t for prehistoric fish, dinosaurs, mammoths and saber-toothed cats would never have existed. The first vertebrates on the planet, fish provided the basic “body plan” subsequently elaborated on by hundreds of millions of years of evolution: in other words, your great-great-great (multiply by a billion) grandmother was a small, meek fish of the Devonian period.
The Earliest Vertebrates: Pikaia and Pals
Although most paleontologists wouldn’t recognize them as true fish, the first fish-like creatures to leave an impression on the fossil record appeared during the middle Cambrian period, about 530 million years ago. The most famous of these, Pikaia, looked more like a worm than a fish, but it had four features crucial to later fish (and vertebrate) evolution: a head distinct from its tail, bilateral symmetry (the left side of its body looked like the right side), V-shaped muscles, and most importantly, a nerve cord running down the length of its body. Because this cord wasn’t protected by a tube of bone or cartilage, Pikaia was technically a “chordate” rather than a vertebrate, but it still lay at the root of the vertebrate family tree.
Two other Cambrian proto-fish were a bit more robust than Pikaia. Haikouichthys is considered by some experts–at least those not overly concerned by its lack of a calcified backbone–to be the earliest jawless fish, and this inch-long creature had rudimentary fins running along the top and bottom of its body.
The similar Myllokunmingia was slightly less elongated than either Pikaia or Haikouichthys, and it also had pouched gills and (possibly) a skull made of cartilage. (Other fish-like creatures may have predated these three genera by tens of millions of years; unfortunately, they haven’t left any fossil remains.)
The Evolution of Jawless Fish
During the Ordovician and Silurian periods–from 490 to 410 million years ago–the world’s oceans, lakes and rivers were dominated by jawless fish, so named because they lacked lower jaws (and thus the ability to consume large prey). You can recognize most of these prehistoric fish by the “-aspis” (the Greek word for “shield”) in the second parts of their names, which hints at the second main characteristic of these early vertebrates: their heads were covered by tough plates of bony armor.
The most notable jawless fish of the Ordovician period were Astraspis and Arandaspis, six-inch-long, big-headed, finless fish that resembled giant tadpoles. Both of these species made their living by bottom-feeding in shallow waters, wriggling slowly above the surface and sucking up tiny animals and the waste of other marine creatures. Their Silurian descendants shared the same body plan, with the important addition of forked tail fins, which gave them more maneuverability.
If the “-aspis” fish were the most advanced vertebrates of their time, why were their heads covered in bulky, un-hydrodynamic armor? The answer is that, hundreds of millions of years ago, vertebrates were far from the dominant life forms in the earth’s oceans, and these early fish needed a means of defense against giant “sea scorpions” and other large arthropods.
The Big Split: Lobe-Finned Fish, Ray-Finned Fish and Placoderms
By the start of the Devonian period–about 420 million years ago–the evolution of prehistoric fish veered off in two (or three, depending on how you count them) directions. One development, which wound up going nowhere, was the appearance of the jawed fishes known as placoderms (“plated skin”), the earliest identified example of which is Entelognathus. These were essentially larger, more varied “-aspis” fish with true jaws, and the most famous genus by far was the 30-foot-long Dunkleosteus, one of the biggest fish that ever lived.
Perhaps because they were so slow and awkward, placoderms vanished by the end of the Devonian period, outclassed by two other newly evolved families of jawed fish: the chondrichthians (fish with cartilaginous skeletons) and osteichthyans (fish with bony skeletons). The chondrichthians included prehistoric sharks, which went on to tear their own bloody path through evolutionary history. The osteichthyans, meanwhile, split into two further groups: the actinopterygians (ray-finned fish) and sarcopterygians (lobe-finned fish).
Ray-finned fish, lobe-finned fish, who cares? Well, you do: the lobe-finned fishes of the Devonian period, such as Panderichthys and Eusthenopteron, had a characteristic fin structure that enabled them to evolve into the first tetrapods–the proverbial “fish out of water” ancestral to all land-living vertebrates, including humans. The ray-finned fish stayed in the water, but went on to become the most successful vertebrates of all: today, there are tens of thousand of species of ray-finned fish, making them the most diverse and numerous vertebrates on the planet (among the earliest ray-finned fish were Saurichthys and Cheirolepis).
The Giant Fish of the Mesozoic Era
No history of fish would be complete without mentioning the giant “dino-fish” of the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods (though these fish weren’t as numerous as their oversized dinosaur cousins). The most famous of these giants were the Jurassic Leedsichthys, which some reconstructions put at a whopping 70 feet long, and the Cretaceous Xiphactinus, which was “only” about 20 feet long but at least had a more robust diet (other fish, compared to Leedsichthys’ diet of plankton and krill). A new addition is Bonnerichthys, yet another large, Cretaceous fish with a tiny, protozoan diet.
Bear in mind, though, that for every “dino-fish” like Leedsichthys there are a dozen smaller prehistoric fish of equal interest to paleontologists. The list is nearly endless, but examples include Dipterus (an ancient lungfish), Enchodus (also known as the “saber-toothed herring”), the prehistoric rabbitfish Ischyodus, and the small but prolific Knightia, which has yielded so many fossils that you can buy your own for less than a hundred bucks.
Sid Meier’s Civilization Revolution for the Xbox 360 is a turn-based strategy game that puts you at the helm of one of 16 great civilizations. There are four ways to win the game: domination victory, cultural victory, economic victory and technology victory. The key to winning a technology victory is to research enough new technologies to build a space station before you run out of turns.
Build multiple cities early. Build a settler unit when your first city reaches level three population. Each time one of your cities reaches a level three population, build another settler unit and create another city. Having at least five cities will make production of the space station, which is necessary to win the technology victory, much quicker.
Increase production. Research technologies that increase your production output, such as iron mines, factories and railroads. Building a courthouse in each city early in the game is also helpful. Courthouses increase the number of production squares you can use.
Develop technologies that increase science. Increasing science will enable you to research new technologies more quickly. Build a library in every city to double your science production, then build a university in each city to increase science production by 50 percent. You can press the “Y” button in the City View screen to alternate your priority settings between science and gold.
Research Space Flight. You will need to research Electronics, Advanced Flight and Nuclear Power in order to research Space Flight. Space Flight, which is necessary to win the technology victory, also unlocks the Apollo Program Wonder. This wonder will reveal all previously undiscovered technologies to you.
Build SS Propulsion and SS Fuel. Once you have researched Space Flight, dedicate all cities to the production of the space station units: SS Propulsion, SS Fuel, SS Habitation and SS Life Support. Build four SS Fuels and three SS Propulsions to get your space station to Alpha Centauri quickly. Build only one or two SS Habitations and SS Life Supports.
Launch the space station and wait for it to reach Alpha Centauri. Once your space station is assembled, press the “A” button to launch it. The right bottom of the screen will tell you how many years it will take for you space station to reach Alpha Centauri. Once the appropriate number of turns have passed to allow your space station to reach its destination, you will win the technology victory.
With an increasing trend in online shopping and transactions happening across the globe, there is an imperative need for a plastic card, which will be safe and secure to use. We need to address online fraud, more so in cases where card not present (CNP) transactions like a telephonic order. Every day, millions of consumers use the plastic currencies to make or receive payments across the globe conveniently and quickly. Is it safe and is it getting better?
Visa has a two-fold responsibility – to protect the information of the cardholder and to transfer value in a safe and secure environment devoid of fraud and theft. These transactions may be online or made in person. Visa Europe partnered with EMUE Technologies Pty Ltd to develop a stylish and powerful solution to address the growing cases of CNP fraud. They have been addressing these issues with initiatives like CVV2, and verified by Visa. They are testing a new Visa card with the help of MBNA (UK), Corner Bank (Switzerland), Cal (Israel) and IW Bank (Italy). This card has a built in computer that will generate a one-time password in a random manner. This new design has incorporated a microprocessor, a 12 button key pad, 8 digit number displays and a battery lasting a minimum of three years. It is a fully ISO compliant card, authentic and user friendly. This card can also be deployed for identity card purposes as well.
The card holder is given a pin number secretly. The individual is required to enter the pin into the card. This will then generate a number randomly and is displayed. This will remain the security code (CVV code) for all transactions and is generated only once. The validity and secrecy is maintained with only the individual having access to the PIN number.
Issuing banks have been given an unchallenged method in preserving the integrity and security during online, telephonic, personal transactions and a much safer method in cases of fund transfer. Thus, they ensure that the individual does not have to share his credentials with any other source that cannot be trusted upon.
For now, let us just wait and watch the response gained as these are monetary transactions before stepping in for action.
About EMUE: EMUE Technologies is a privately held Australian firm with a vision to address issues regarding authentication in an attempt to mitigate theft. They have partnered with Deloitte Touche Tohamatsu in 2006 to help roll out of the products and services. They are leaders in providing secure access.
Visa Europe became independent of the new global Visa Inc. in the year 2007. The new global Visa Inc. restructured and listed in the New York Stock Exchange in the year 2008. They have begun trading publicly with one the largest initial public offering in the U.S. A membership association was formed and operated by approximately 4600 European member banks in the name of Visa Europe. Together, they operate electronic payment network in a global manner by facilitating global commerce. They transfer information and value amongst financial institutions, merchants, consumers, and governments across 170 nations and territories.
- Emerging technology is a sector of information technology responsible for developing new products or devices that are expected to be widely used in the next 5 to 10 years. Businesses often look to emerging technologies for new services or devices that will help them create a competitive business advantage. Emerging technology might also include advancements of technologies the business already uses. These advancements often allow companies to enhance business operations at a cheaper cost.
Robotics and Artificial Intelligence
- Two important emerging technology fields for businesses are robotics and artificial intelligence. Robotics is an engineering science and technology field that uses electronic or mechanical technology to replace human labor. Manufacturing and production firms currently use robots in their systems, and the robotics technology industry seeks to expand to other business industries. Artificial intelligence focuses on creating intelligent machines for businesses to use. Businesses use this technology by entering information into business machines that can develop the information and make accurate predictions and identify trends.
Research and Development
- Emerging technology helps companies create more effective and less costly research and development processes. Photonic computing, quantum computing, biometrics and nanotechnology are a few technologies that allow companies to find new ways for researching and breaking down information and other business processes. These technologies are commonly used in the chemical, petroleum, medical and other industries. Increased research and development technologies can help companies develop products more efficiently and bring them to the consumer market faster than in previous years.
- Technology can improve how a business communicates, and several new communication methods are in the emerging technology pipeline. One emerging communication technology is virtual offices, where employees meet, discuss various situations and complete business functions. Voice over Internet Protocol is used for communicating via audio or video technology equipment. These technologies allow companies to work with employees or other companies around the world.
- Companies might not be able to use technology to replace or enhance every aspect of business operations. Certain business functions require the use of human labor or intelligence, including analyzing and assessing business situations or financial information. Consumers might find companies too impersonal when copious amounts of technology are implemented into a business’ operations. Consumers might not appreciate the technological advancements when they perceive that companies are unwilling to handle customer service situations in a personal manner.
If you went back in time and looked at the first, unremarkable prehistoric sharks of the Ordovician period–about 420 million years ago–you might never guess that their descendants would become such dominant creatures, holding their own against vicious aquatic reptiles like pliosaurs and mosasaurs and going on to become the “apex predators” of the world’s oceans. Today, few creatures in the world inspire as much fear as the Great White Shark, the closest nature has come to a pure killing machine.
Before discussing shark evolution, though, it’s important to define what we mean by “shark.” Technically, sharks are a suborder of fish whose skeletons are made out of cartilage rather than bone; sharks are also distinguished by their streamlined, hydrodynamic shapes, sharp teeth, and sandpaper-like skin. Frustratingly for paleontologists, skeletons made of cartilage don’t persist in the fossil record nearly as well as skeletons made of bone–which is why so many prehistoric sharks are known primarily (if not exclusively) by their fossilized teeth.
The First Sharks
We don’t have much in the way of direct evidence, except for a handful of fossilized scales, but the first sharks are believed to have evolved during the Ordovician period, about 420 million years ago (to put this into perspective, the first tetrapods didn’t crawl up out of the sea until 400 million years ago). The most important genus that has left significant fossil evidence is the difficult-to-pronounce Cladoselache, numerous specimens of which have been found in the American midwest.
As you might expect in such an early shark, Cladoselache was fairly small, and it had some odd, non-shark-like characteristics–such as a paucity of scales (except for small areas around its mouth and eyes) and a complete lack of “claspers,” the sexual organ by which male sharks attach themselves (and transfer sperm to) the females.
After Cladoselache, the most important prehistoric sharks of ancient times were Stethacanthus, Orthacanthus and Xenacanthus. Stethacanthus measured only six feet from snout to tail but already boasted the full panoply of shark features–scales, sharp teeth, distinctive fin structure, and a sleek, hydrodynamic build. What set this genus apart were the bizarre, ironing-board-like structures atop the backs of males, which were probably somehow used during mating. The comparably ancient Stethacanthus and Orthacanthus were both fresh-water sharks, distinguished by their small size, eel-like bodies, and odd spikes protruding from the tops of their heads (which may have delivered jabs of poison to bothersome predators).
The Sharks of the Mesozoic Era
Considering how common they were during the preceding geologic periods, sharks kept a relatively low profile during most of the Mesozoic Era, because of intense competition from aquatic reptiles like ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. By far the most successful genus was Hybodus, which was built for survival: this prehistoric shark had two types of teeth, sharp ones for eating fish and flat ones for grinding mollusks, as well as a sharp blade jutting out of its dorsal fin to keep other predators at bay. The cartilaginous skeleton of Hybodus was unusually tough and calcified, explaining this shark’s persistence both in the fossil record and in the world’s oceans, which it prowled from the Triassic to the early Cretaceous periods.
Prehistoric sharks really came into their own during the middle Cretaceous period, about 100 million years ago. Both Cretoxyrhina (about 25 feet long) and Squalicorax (about 15 feet long) would be recognizable as “true” sharks by a modern observer; in fact, there’s direct tooth-mark evidence that Squalicorax preyed on dinosaurs that blundered into its habitat. Perhaps the most surprising shark from the Cretaceous period is the recently discovered Ptychodus, a 30-foot-long monster whose numerous, flat teeth were adapted to grinding up tiny mollusks, rather than large fish or aquatic reptiles.
After the Mesozoic – Introducing Megalodon
After the dinosaurs (and their aquatic cousins) went extinct 65 million years ago, prehistoric sharks were free to complete their slow evolution into the remorseless killing machines we know today. Frustratingly, though, the fossil evidence for the sharks of the Miocene epoch (for example) consists almost exclusively of teeth–thousands and thousands of teeth, so many that you can buy yourself one on the open market. The Great White-sized Otodus, for example, is known almost exclusively by its teeth, from which paleontologists have reconstructed this fearsome, 30-foot-long shark.
By far the most famous prehistoric shark of this time period was Megalodon, adult specimens of which measured 70 feet from head to tail and weighed as much as 50 tons. Megalodon was a true apex predator of the worlds’ oceans, feasting on everything from whales, dolphins and seals to giant fish and (presumably) equally giant squids. No one knows why this monster went extinct about two million years ago; the most likely candidates include climate change and the resulting disappearance of its usual prey.
Emerging Technologies in Energy & Environment
The Energy & Environment Crisis is an Opportunity in Disguise
Globalization is expected to double the level of industrialization in about 10 years, producing a commensurate increase in the demand for energy, pollution levels, global warming, and other aspects of the energy and environment crisis. Our forecasts show that today’s growth of green business should take off in three-five years, and governments are likely to take serious steps to curb global warming about the same time. Alternative energy sources – wind turbines, biofuels, nuclear plants, and solar cells – are growing 30-40% per year, roughly the same rate as Moore’s Law. The entire market for green technologies is expected to reach about $10 trillion in time, larger than autos, health care, and defense. In short, the present energy and environment mess actually offers a great opportunity in disguise.
Emerging Technologies in Information Technology
Information Technology Changes Everything
Computer power continues to double every two years, a second generation of optical, biological, and quantum computers is poised to take over in a decade, and artificial intelligence is automating routine mental tasks and raising the level of knowledge everywhere. These profound advances are moving life online into a virtual world that is ever-present and intelligent. The Web is the same age when color TV became the dominant force of the 20th century. Within a decade, people are likely to speak to high-fidelity images on large wall monitors while working, shopping, learning, and conducting almost all other social functions. You might buy something by simply talking with an onscreen robot that greets you by name, knows all the merchandise and displays it on demand, answers questions, and has infinite patience – the perfect salesperson. This suggests a tipping point is imminent as IT matures to transform economics, markets, lifestyles, and social institutions. The threats to existing businesses are likely to be vast – but so will the opportunities.
Emerging Technologies in E-Commerce
E-Commerce is Uniting the Globe
Most e-commerce today operates at about 10 -15% adoption levels, but our forecasts suggest that online shopping, publishing, education, entertainment, and other services are likely to reach the critical 30% adoption level soon where new businesses usually take off. And the huge populations of China, India, Brazil, and other developing countries are moving in droves to PCs, the Internet, and smart phones. We anticipate that four-five billion people will soon inhabit a digital world that is smarter, faster, and interactive, creating online markets of several trillion dollars. Instead of a liability, the poor actually represent a huge potential market for inexpensive goods. C.K. Prahalad, a leading business professor, said “The world’s four billion poor should be considered the biggest source of growth left.”
Emerging Technologies in Manufacturing
Manufacturing Goes High-Tech
The smoking factories of the Industrial Age are yielding to intelligent manufacturing systems operating worldwide to produce goods cheaply, quickly, and made to order. Research in materials and nanotechnology is making it possible to create almost any type of product, and mass customization can deliver an endless stream of sophisticated goods designed for individuals. The Japanese and Koreans have produced intelligent robots that can walk, climb stairs, and speak with humans, and they are finding work as office receptionists, security guards, and helpers in offices and homes. Driven by the pursuit of cheap labor and new markets, these changes are likely to bring industrialization to poor nations over the next few decades. However this economic growth is also producing mounting demand for scarce resources, increasing loads on the environment, and clashes between diverse cultures. An industrialized world will be a boon to business – but making it sustainable is an enormous challenge that will test us for decades.
Emerging Technologies in Medicine
Medical Advances Confer Mastery Over Life
A variety of breakthroughs is likely to provide mastery over the process of life itself. Artificial organs are being developed to replace almost all bodily functions, including parts of the brain, and stem cell research is increasingly able to repair organs. Electronic medical records, online doctor’s visits, computerized diagnostics, and other forms of telemedicine should curtail rising costs and improve quality of care. Nanotech is being used to develop tiny devices that are intelligent enough to seek out cancer cells, small enough to enter cells and destroy them, and are safely removed by the kidneys. The U.S. National Cancer Institute thinks cancer deaths could be eliminated by 2015. Just as the Industrial Age mastered most aspects of the physical world, these advances are now making it possible to master the biological world. Yes, it sounds too good to be true, but so did the notion that men could fly, much less travel to the moon.
Emerging Technologies in Transportation
Transportation Is Moving Faster and Farther
Our forecasts show that a new wave of green autos powered by hybrid, electric, and fuel cell engines should enter the mainstream about 2013 – 2018, and we are likely to see “intelligent cars” that may even drive themselves. So there are growth opportunities for automakers if Detroit can get its act together. It may seem that information systems could replace travel, but information forms a virtual world that parallels the physical world. People will always want to visit each other, handle the merchandise, and hammer out tough decisions together. The need for physical contact is inexhaustible, and studies show that growing virtual contact makes face-to-face relations more necessary.
Emerging Technologies in Space
Space is Going Private
CEO Richard Branson is scheduling the first suborbital flight of tourists aboard Virgin Galactic for 2010, and competitors are rushing their own plans, including visits to the Moon and space hotels. Just a few years ago the idea seemed laughable, but it now looks like space tourism will soon launch the realistic possibility of opening the final frontier to private ventures. Burt Rutan, who leads Virgin Galactic’s effort, said: “If we reach our goal of flying 100,000 people in the first ten to twelve years, you are going to see unusual creativity. As the thrill of experiencing space becomes available to almost anyone, it is easy to imagine the floodgates of entrepreneurial creativity opening to permit a rush of new ventures – roughly the way the Wild West was tamed by pioneers a century ago. Our experts estimate that people will commonly take orbital flights around the Earth as safely as airline flights in about 5 years, signaling a watershed from government control to free enterprise.
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Sometimes we can all make use of a small assist monetarily. If you locate oneself by using a fiscal issue, and also you don’t know the best places to turn, you can obtain a pay day loan. A cash advance is actually a simple-expression loan you could obtain easily. You will discover a bit more concerned, and they suggestions can help you recognize further as to what these lending options are about.
Look at shopping online for the payday advance, should you need to take one out. There are numerous sites that offer them. Should you need one, you happen to be already restricted on money, so just why waste gas driving all around attempting to find one which is available? You actually have the option of doing the work all from your workplace.
Know that you are supplying the payday loan use of your own personal business banking info. Which is fantastic when you notice the loan downpayment! Nonetheless, they is likewise generating withdrawals out of your account. Be sure you feel safe by using a organization having that type of access to your bank account. Know to expect that they will use that accessibility.
Due to the fact payday cash loans are usually accepted inside one day, you should not hop on the initial on the internet payday loan organization you stumble all over. Diverse businesses have different interest levels, service fees, and conditions and terms. Make sure you investigate, and surf the world wide web for the greatest probable organization for you.
Whenever you are filling out an application for any cash advance, it is recommended to try to find some type of writing saying your details is definitely not marketed or given to anyone. Some paycheck financing sites will offer important info out including your deal with, sociable safety number, etc. so make sure you avoid these companies.
If you must remove a payday advance, be sure you read through almost any fine print associated with the bank loan. If there are fees and penalties associated with paying down early on, it depends on you to definitely know them up front. If you find something that you simply do not recognize, will not indicator.
For those who find yourself in trouble in the place in which they already have a couple of pay day loan, you have to look at options to spending them away. Consider utilising a cash loan off your charge card. The monthly interest will likely be decrease, and the charges are considerably less in comparison to the payday loans.
Before applying for payday loans, think about how much time you possess been at the existing work and street address. Specifications for the two of these ranges from a minimum of ninety days to a calendar year or even more. These programs might not exactly ding your credit report, as it is usually not checked by paycheck lenders. It could possibly, nonetheless, just spend your valuable time when you find yourself inside a crunch.
In no way have a pay day loan from the company who openly asks to your car or any other possessions for guarantee. Most people are unaware which a genuine payday advance by no means asks for collateral. As a result lack of knowledge, people might be out 1000s of dollars. One and only thing these firms should get is your financial institution information and facts and proof of career.
Pick your references sensibly. Some payday advance companies expect you to label two, or three referrals. These are the basic men and women that they will phone, if you have a difficulty and you cannot be attained. Make sure your personal references can be arrived at. Additionally, make sure that you inform your recommendations, that you are using them. This will assist those to assume any calls.
When you are thinking of a brief word, pay day loan, tend not to use anymore than you must. Pay day loans ought to only be employed to allow you to get by in the crunch rather than be applied for additional cash from the budget. The interest levels are far too higher to obtain any longer than you truly need to have.
One of the ways to ensure that you are getting a cash advance from your trustworthy lender would be to find reviews for various payday loan companies. Performing this should help you differentiate authentic creditors from ripoffs which can be just seeking to rob your cash. Be sure to do adequate research.
Getting a short-phrase loan could be simply the issue you have to enable you to through a tough time. These personal loans can be a wonderful assist, only in case you have everything you require. Begin using these ideas to help you take decisions about acquiring a cash advance, and you can cope with these challenging times more easily.
A Great Way to Achieve the Shape That You Want – Laser Liposuction These recent years, the laser liposuction has increased in terms of its popularity. People are opting for this form of liposuction when they wanted to achieve a shape on their stomach area. This is because the procedure associated with it is quite more easier leaving you the shape that you wish to have. It help remove the excess fat with the use of laser making the process to be a lot easier. It can even remove all the fats that you wanted to get rid of even in those areas that the traditional liposuction cannot do. So, if you are just so tired of doing a lot of exercises just to get the shape of your stomach, you can now shift to the easiest way which is the laser liposuction. With the new treatment, you can get rid of all the fat tissues that you wanted to remove that cannot be done by just merely exercising. It helps you achieve the perfect shape of your body that no other treatment can. This treatment surely lessens your worries about the muffin top, love handles, and other fat deposits that you have in the body. The procedure is sure safe and it will only take some time in order to recover from the surgery, and this what makes it a viable alternative for tummy tuck surgery. Most of the plastic surgeons who choose to do laser liposuction. This is because it is less harmful even to the affected areas.
The Best Advice on Liposuction I’ve found
A laser will be used in the procedure so you will not have to worry about getting big and many scars. Other types of liposuction are using large suctioning device which will cause big scars. You are guaranteed to experience less pain during and even after the treatment. This makes it very quick for the patients to recover after the treatment. You only need to have a gentle pain reliever if in case you feel some pain.
Smart Tips For Finding Liposuction
The other forms of liposuction will require the patients to make use of compression garment that will ensure proper healing. But this is no longer a requirement in the laser liposuction. Laser treatment will give a firmer, tighter and more contoured. This is the main reason why compression garment is no longer useful. Swelling might happen in liposuction but that is not really a problem with laser liposuction. It is no longer hard for you to achieve the shape that you are dreaming of having with the use of laser liposuction. This treatment is surely the best treatment that you can ever use to get the best shape ever.
Give your students an insight into the amazing world of biology with this easy lesson plan and fun activities. Teach biology basics and let children experiment with microscopes and other equipment, taking a magnified look into the world of bacteria, microorganisms and cells. This introduction to biology offers some great biology basics, easy activities, interesting questions and other useful teaching ideas.
An introduction to biology:
Ask if any of the students can give a general definition of biology.
Once you’ve listened to their answers help them out by giving them a good definition such as:
- Biology is the science of living things: The life sciences collectively, including botany, anatomy, physiology and zoology.
Some questions to get them thinking:
- So what exactly does a biologist do?
- What kind of jobs involve biology?
If you have any biology related equipment or instruments, now is a good time to show them. Things like microscopes and slides are perfect.
Simple microscope activity:
If you do have microscopes available then let the students experiment with them. Show them the basics first and then give them some interesting biology samples to look at under the microscope. Things like hair strands, food, plants and clothing fibers are always interesting.
Bring the students back and talk about what they saw under the microscope. Is what they saw different from what they see with the naked eye? Does this affect what they think about these objects?
Microscopes have many uses in biology, they can be used to investigate cells as well as bacteria growth, plant decay and much more.
Another easy activity you can try is to help the children make an agar plate to grow bacteria.
Other areas of biology:
Other important areas of biology that can be mentioned in your introduction to biology include anatomy, physiology, neurology and evolution. Ask plenty of open ended questions to help stimulate discussion while being prepared to step in and offer some useful points when their ideas start running dry.
- What do muscles in the human body do?
- Why do some people have black hair and others blonde?
- How does your brain work?
- Why do giraffes have long necks?
Biology is a very wide area of science covering a number of different topics, While this biology introduction only covers only a few of them, it should give kids a taste of what biology is all about and hopefully stimulate an interest in what is a fascinating subject.
The essential requirements for comfortable and healthy indoor environments are adequate ventilation and humidity control. In the humidity rich regions of the world to solve the above problems the key solution is the air conditioners based on liquid desiccants technology.
Liquid desiccants are solutions that have a high affinity for water vapor. This property is the key to creating cooling systems that dehumidify air without over-cooling. Liquid desiccants used in the systems commonly are very strong solutions of the ionic salts lithium chloride and calcium chloride.
These ionic salts have the attractive characteristic and have essential zero vapor pressure. Because of such reason, vapors of the desiccant will not appear in the air supplied by the LDAC (liquid decissant air conditioner). This technology can enhance heat transfer by a mechanism that is the inverse of vaporative cooling. When air flows over a surface wetted with water, evaporation from the film of water will lower the temperature of the water-air interface toward the wet-bulb temperature of the air. This wet-bulb temperature is a function of the air’s initial temperature and humidity.
A line of constant enthalpy that passes through the air’s state point intersects the saturation line on a psychrometric chart at approximately the wet-bulb temperature.
A liquid-desiccant air conditioner (LDAC) has three major components: (1) the conditioner, which dries and cools the process air, (2) the regenerator, which heats the weak desiccant to drive off the water that was absorbed in the conditioner, and (3) the interchange heat exchanger, which uses the hot, concentrated desiccant that leaves the regenerator to preheat the cool, weak desiccant that leaves the conditioner. The conditioner is a water-to-air heat exchanger that is constructed from plastic plates. Cooling water flows within the plates and films of liquid desiccant flow down the outer surfaces of the plates. When air flows over a surface that is wetted with a desiccant, the desiccant can either absorb or desorbs water, depending on whether the desiccant’s equilibrium relative humidity is above or below the air’s relative humidity.
Use baking soda and vinegar to create an awesome chemical reaction! Watch as it rapidly fizzes over the container and make sure you’ve got some towels ready to clean up.
What you’ll need:
- Baking Soda (make sure it’s not baking powder)
- A container to hold everything and avoid a big mess!
- Paper towels or a cloth (just in case)
- Place some of the baking soda into your container.
- Pour in some of the vinegar
- Watch as the reaction takes place!
The baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) is a base while the vinegar (acetic acid) is an acid. When they react together they form carbonic acid which is very unstable, it instantly breaks apart into water and carbon dioxide, which creates all the fizzing as it escapes the solution.
For extra effect you can make a realistic looking volcano. It takes some craft skills but it will make your vinegar and baking soda eruptions will look even more impressive!
The Important Factors in Considering a Medical Spa Medical spas are very famous nowadays and this kind of business is a hybrid of a day spa and a medical clinic that is being headed by a licensed physician and some people would often go here to relax. In going to a medical spa, they can treat the conditions that involved your body and your face like removing the redness, brown spots and even broken capillaries that cannot be done by an ordinary beautician like in parlors on in other kind of spa. Laser treatments, laser hair removal, photofacials, injectibles like botox and fillers, skin rejuvenation or tightening, microdermabrasion and aggressive chemicals peels are most of the various services provided or offered by medical spas that is customers can go here to do the various services they they need. Most of the medical spas have a clinical atmosphere as compared to an ordinary spa and they vary in their area of focus in terms of the services that they offer because some medical spa offer wellness services and body massage. There are some things or factors that you have to consider in choosing a medical spa since there are many businesses that are opening a medical spa and the first thing that you should ask is whether medical spa is headed by a medical doctor. Sometimes, doctors lend their names to be used as the head doctor of the medical spa and they might not perform the procedures themselves but they must be in the clinic to monitor the medical treatments that are being done on the patients.
The Art of Mastering Businesses
Another thing that you need to consider in choosing a medical spa is the licenses and experiences of the staff involved whether the staff is well trained and well experienced already in performing the various medical treatments. Medical spa also used equipment for performing their medical procedures and it is quite expensive because the medical equipment used are also advanced and expensive that is why some customers do also consider the type of equipment that a medical spa uses.
What Has Changed Recently With Services?
Some medical doctors do build a medical spa to have a variety of services for their patients but the patients may also have their own sound judgment whether to undergo a medical procedure to make themselves beautiful or on the other hand, they have the option not to undergo that procedure. In terms of results after the medical treatment, you might see various results because there are various number of procedures to be performed also depending on the case of a patient for a certain ailment of condition on his or her body or face.
What is Neurology Care? So many people today are in fact still unaware or are confused about neurology. When you have been worrying about a certain disease or have your head hurt, neurology might be the answer to your problem. It is a fact that this type of procedure is complex and because of the fact that more and more people today are afraid to venture into science, they are able to have a hard time in getting the treatment for their problem. Patient care is actually considered to be one process that’s considered to be very important for neurological care. So many people are actually in the case where they are worried, scared, upset and also confused. It is crucial that you give importance in asking lots of questions towards your doctor as this will also help them to know what are the right treatments for you to acquire and also evaluate you properly and effectively. It is important that you don’t rush yourself and also to understand everything which will happen. Neurology actually have lots of services offered where there are those that are even simple enough just like an MRI scan process for your brain. However, you should never overlook the importance of finding a neurologist that is reputable in the industry and find one that is licensed, experiences and capable of handling different level of care in order to help you feel at ease and also help you get the assurance of delivering the procedures properly. Rehab therapy is actually considered to be another big part that is also under neurological services. In this type of therapy, there are lots of physical exercises that are involved in the process so that you will be greatly aided for you to have yourself be aided back to work.
The Beginners Guide To Experts (Chapter 1)
There are actually different common issues which people are facing every day and one that has a relation for a neurology procedure where some examples of it are anxiety, stress and insomnia. Professional psychiatrist and psychologist are in fact on the continuous process of treating the issues.
Why not learn more about Treatments?
If you actually wanted to get neurological services, it will give you the assurance of acquiring patient care that are delivered with quality. Whatever the level for the need of your neurological care, the doctors and nurses will actually do their best to treat your illness and also help in taking away your worries. You need to take note that in the process of finding a reputable neurological service, this is a thing which can be complicated to do. With the consideration of doing effective research at first, you will be able to end with a suitable outcome for the service provider you acquired.
Homo sapiens evolved about 200-150,000 years ago in Africa, but our story as a species stretches back much further than that with early human ancestors. And the evolution of Homo sapiens is itself a tangled tale, full of unanswered questions and gothic family melodrama. Here are a few facts you may not know about the human evolutionary story.
1. Early human beings left Africa over 1 million years ago
Most of us have heard the story about how Homo sapiens poured out of Africa into Europe and Asia starting about 80,000 years ago. What you may not realize is that our ancestor, Homo erectus, had been taking the same routes out of Africa on and off for over 1 million years. In fact, when Homo sapiens left Africa, they would have encountered other humans who looked very much like themselves – these would be the descendents of the common ancestor we share with Neanderthals, as well as the descendents of Homo erectus. All of these people were early humans. And they had been wandering around Eurasia for hundreds of thousands of years.
2. Humans have incredibly low genetic diversity
Humans are among the least genetically diverse apes, mostly because we all appear to be descended from a small group of humans who lived in East Africa. To describe genetic diversity, population geneticists use a measure called “effective population size.” Put extremely simply, effective population size is how many people you would need to reproduce the genetic diversity of our full population. For humans, this number hovers around 15,000 individuals, which is pretty insane when you consider our actual population size is 7 billion. As a point of comparison, some species of mice have an effective population size of 733,000.
3. You may be part Neanderthal
This is pretty widely known, but it bears repeating. Recent genetic analysis of Neanderthal bones reveals that there are some Neanderthal genes that have made their way into modern non-African populations. This suggests that when Cro-Magnons entered Europe, the Middle East and Asia, they probably had children with the local Neanderthal populations. We are all one happy human family.
4. The human population crashed about 80,000 years ago
Something mysterious happened about 80,000 years ago that reduced humanity’s effective population size. If you recall, the effective population size is not the same thing as the actual population size – it’s a measure of genetic diversity. So basically, our genetic diversity shrank by a lot 80,000 years ago. There are a lot of theories about why this might be, ranging from an apocalyptic disaster caused by the eruption of the Toba volcano, to something more mundane like interbreeding among small populations.
5. Humans navigated the Indian ocean in boats 50,000 years ago
Homo sapiens arrived in Australia roughly 50,000 years ago. How the hell did they get there from the shores of Africa? They used small boats, probably lashed together out of reeds. (Likely they were similar to the boats that brought us from Asia to the Americas over 17,000 years ago.) It was the Paleolithic equivalent of flying to the moon in a tin can. It shouldn’t have worked, but it did. Using those small boats, we crossed the Pacific many times and populated an entire continent.
6. Homo sapiens has only had a culture for less than 50,000 years
While we’re talking about all the cool things that happened 50,000 years ago, it’s worth noting that many anthropologists now believe early humans probably did not develop what we would recognize as culture until around that time. This is amazing when you consider that the “mitochondrial Eve” theory suggests that we are all descended from one East African woman who lived about 200-150,000 years ago. Given that Homo sapiens evolved around the time of mitochondrial Eve, that means our species hung around for a really long time before we developed awesome things like art, symbolic communication, ornaments, and fancy bone tools. Certainly, pre-cultural humans had fairly sophisticated toolkits and fire, but we have very little evidence that they had art and symbolic communication, which are the cornerstones of that thing we call “culture.” Some anthropologists believe that we didn’t even invent language until that cultural explosion, but this is almost impossible to prove one way or the other.
7. Homo sapiens has always used fire as a tool
Homo sapiens evolved after our ancestors tamed fire and started making tools. This sounds simple, but when you start to think about it, the implications are profound. As a species, we have never existed without one of the most important tools for building a civilization: tamed fire. As a species, we are born tool users and fire makers. Some might even say that means we were born cyborgs, because our species has always been augmented by the invention of artificially made fire and tools. Whoa.
8. Homo sapiens is still evolving rapidly
Good news, everyone! Homo sapiens is still evolving – and one day our progeny will be as different from us as we are from Homo erectus. Evolutionary biologists have isolated a few areas of the human genome that are under rapid selection. That means mutations in those genes are spreading rapidly throughout the population. Many of these mutations are related to brain size and development, and others have to do with our ability to tolerate certain kinds of foods (like dairy) and disease resistance. This has led some biologists to wonder whether we are evolving to be more intelligent, but it is not yet clear whether the evolutionary changes we are seeing have anything to do with intelligence — especially since our brains are actually shrinking. Still, it’s good to know that that the genes which control one of my favorite anatomical systems is still evolving.
In this digital time, everything is progressed and gets to be more complicated, everyone leaving the basic old way and turn to computerize and digital world. The most important things and imperative piece of our life nowadays is a data. The data on our computer can be family photo, work record; bit of art, music and even secret journal you compose routinely, losing one of these is not in a choice. In any case, your computer may be damaged, missed the mark or separated. Subsequently, you need to have a backup plan set to guarantee that when something happens you will have the ability to restore your data fittingly, you can use data backup physically, or you can use cloud or dedicated server. In this manner, today I will provide for you a regulated guide on how to back up your data suitably and smoothly.
The main system to back up is by back up your data physically. You can use storage device or media, for instance, Minimized plate, DVD, bluray circle or even external hard drive to back up your data. You just put your external storage media device into your machine and duplicate your data into that storage media device. Regardless, guarantee that you give storage media device that capable to handle the greater part of your data; you will require a sufficiently huge external drive to spare all your data. I prescribe you to get no under 1 terabyte hard circle drive or more to duplicate the greater part of your data. Confirm that you upgrade your back up data often.
The second technique is back up your data into cloud computing administration. Utilizing cloud computing administration, you will have the ability to guarantee that your data will be available for time everlasting. You may also use dedicated servers to ensure that you are capable to use the best performance of server for you. Dedicated server will provide you good data centre that capable to prevent you from data failure.
More than merely a place to get wine bottles, NC wineries provide you the opportunity to experience unique wine beverages to choose the one you enjoy. With every day tastings, you will be sure to obtain the perfect wine regardless what your taste buds favor. While you look at the wine makers, you may be able to get a tour in the facilities, discover more about the bottle of wine making process and buy the brand new bottle of wine you will have located.
If you have a extraordinary event thought of, why don’t you have one at one of many vineyards? At a winery for example Dennis Vineyards, you can have your own special celebration, such as a wedding and reception, close to the winery’s grounds. Imagine a back drop of the gorgeous grape crops while the sun commences to set. Just after the function, your invited guests will in addition be able to receive a tour or possibly take part in wine tasting well before they’ll go. Naturally, what individuals will not take pleasure in combining a wine tasting in their party?
Although the winery uses over ten acres of land, it is minutes from Charlotte, NC, so you can easily prepare a day time visit to a winery to see the grounds and also have a wonderful day. Find out about the exclusively raised grapes the bottles of wine is created from, look at the place your chosen wine is made, and obtain some bottles of wine direct from the cultivator prior to leaving. If you would like anything to do this weekend, you ought to see one of many vineyards NC has.